This guide entails vital details of the 410 SS like its various properties, advantages, disadvantages, fabrication and machining, its different forms, etc.
Read this guide before choosing your next stainless steel grade:
What is 410 Stainless Steel?
410 stainless steel is known also as alloy 410 and UNS S41000. Alloy 410 is a chromium martensitic SS.
It is able to achieve enhanced mechanical properties when heat treated very well.
What is 410 Stainless Steel Equivalent?
Alloy 410 is almost similar with SS alloy 420. 410 SS has fine mechanical properties and reasonable level of corrosion resistance.
Their major disparity has to do with the carbon amount or percentage in both.
420 contains 0.15 – 0.35% carbon while 410 has 0.080 – 0.150% carbon content.
Designations of 410 Stainless Steel
- AMS 5504
- ASTM A 240
- ASME SA 240
Advantages of 410 Stainless Steel?
Here are some reasons why you should consider this stainless steel for your applications:
Resistance to Corrosion
This alloy resists corrosion of low concentrations where mild mineral, fresh water, mildly corrosive conditions, and organic acids are concerned.
It comes with very good weldability.
This process enhances its mechanical features.
Whether it is heat treated or annealed, it stays magnetic.
Lastly, this stainless steel grade the best thermal conductivity.
Disadvantages of 410 Stainless Steel
Machining must be done at slow speed if not tempered or annealed. Usually, this may limit certain machining operations.
410 Stainless Steel Properties
Good corrosion resisting features.
- It has the finest resistance to water, air, mild acides, hot gases, steam including chemicals such as nitric acid, ammonia, etc.
- Higher hardening leads to higher resistance for 410 alloy.
Resistance to oxidation.
- It continuously resists oxidation up to 700°C.
- Intermittently, it resists oxidation up to 816°C.
The chemical composition of 410 include:
- 0.15% carbon
- 1% manganese
- 1% silicon
- 0.04% phosphorus
- 0.03% sulphur
- 0.75% nickel
- Up to 13.5% of Chromium which is the most important element in this 410 concentration.
410 comes with these unique physical properties:
- It has a fine outlook and is very smooth.
- Completely magnetic
- High strength and durability levels.
Some other information on its physical properties to know include:
- 1495°C melting point
- 7.65 g/cm3 density.
- Modulus of elasticity 200gpa.
- 9.9 – 11.5°C thermal expansion mean coefficient.
- Electrical resistivity 570nΩ.m..
- Annealed 410 attains 65000psi minimum tensile strength.
- Comes with a 2% offset yield strength of 30000 psi.
- Its elongation – 20% in 2 inches
- Hardness below Rockwell B80.
The properties of 410 changes when it is hardened.
- Its tensile strength moves higher to 205000psi.
- Yield offset moves higher to 185000 psi.
- Elongation – 8% in 2 inches.
- Hardness goes below Rockwell C40.
Difference between 410 vs 316 Stainless Steel
316 SS has molybdenum in its composition while 410 SS doesn’t have this element.
- Yield strength of 410 is 290 – 580 while with 316 it is 230-850.
- Chromium stands at 16-18% in alloy 316.
- For 410 SS, chromium is from 11-13%.
410 alloy costs lesser compared to 316. This is because 410 doesn’t have molybdenum in its makeup.
416 requires heat treatments to gain higher levels of strength. On the other hand, 316 requires cold working to enhance its strength levels.
Due to the inclusion of molybdenum in the makeup of 316 as well as its higher chromium amounts compared to 410, it has better resistance to corrosion when compared to 410.
Machining 316 is easier compared to 410 due to the higher content of carbon in 410.
Both can be welded with ease.
410 Fabricating and Machining Properties
Resistance to Heat
Alloy 410 experiences a reduction in its mechanical properties at temperatures 400°C and 580°C.
For the finest scaling resistance, temperatures should be 650°C.
Some common heat treatment methods include:
Annealing – Complete annealing can be achieved between 815°C – 900°C temperatures.
This needs to be followed by slow air and furnace cooling.
Hardening – To ensure hardening takes place, ideal temperature must be 925°C – 1010°C. However, follow it with oil cooling and oil quenching. Tempering is done next to ensure current hardening is enhanced.
Welding – Welding 410 alloy is simple, however, heating should be at150°C – 260°C.
When welding is completed, annealing is essential to prevent cracking.
Machining – When 410 is highly annealed or tempered, it gets to that ideal level of machining. This is because machining 410 without tempering or annealing can be quite difficult, particularly if they are hardened over 30HRC.
After machining, decontamination and passivation is recommended highly.
Different forms of 410 Stainless Steel
- Sheets and coil
- Roll and coils
- Bars and rods
- Pipes and tubes
- Wire and rope
- Pipe fittings
Different Applications of 410 Stainless Steel
This is special stainless steel grade you can use for many applications including:
- Turbines (steam and gas) and turbine blade
- Tray and steam valves
- Jet engines
- Hand tools
- Bolts and flat springs
- Shafts for pumps.
- Knives and kitchen utensils.
- Hand tools.
- Miscellaneous parts.
410 SS with its ability to resist hot gases, fresh water, mild acids, alkalies, and more will be of immense gain to you.
You can never go wrong with the strength of 410 SS and with information in this guide, you will make better choices.
Stainless Steel Grades – Source: Tuolian
Choosing Stainless Steel Grades – Source: Tuolian
Stainless Steel Grade 410 – Source: AZO Materials
410 SS vs 316 Stainless Steel – Source: Piping Mart