416 is popular for easy machining. So, before choosing the SS grade for any machining operations, know the properties, and other compatible fabrication processes.
416 Stainless Steel Properties
416 Stainless Steel Pipes
The properties include:
It exhibits superior corrosion resistance. Chromium reacts with oxygen and water to form chromium oxide. It is this layer that prevents the corrosion of 416 stainless steel.
Even so, austenitic grades (304, 310,303,316, and 321) are more corrosion-resistant than 416 stainless steel.
By the way, high levels of sulphur can corrode 416 stainless steel. Since it has sulphur, it may be susceptible to rusting in chloride or marine environments.
The good news is that you can increase the resistance to corrosion by ensuring 416 stainless steel is hardened and polished.
When you subject it to 760°C, the stainless steel can still resist oxidation. Of course, this is under intermittent conditions.
However, exceeding the maximum temperature (870°C) weakens its mechanical properties. When it comes to continuous process, the resistance can be up to 675°C.
416 Stainless Steel Composition
416 stainless steel is composed of seven elements in different quantities as illustrated below:
- C – 0.09% to 0.15%
- Mn – 1.25% maximum
- Si – 1% maximum
- P – 0.06% maximum
- S – 0.15% to 0.35%
- Cr – 12% to 14%
Other additional compositions include nickel (1.0% max) and Molybdenum (0.6% max).
There are instance where 416 SS max experience corrosion after subjecting to corrosive environments for a long time.
Some of these conditions include; saline environments, extreme temperature, moisture, grease, and damaging chemicals.
The truth is 416 stainless steel can rust! Chromium is responsive for corrosion resistance.
Nevertheless, the layer is susceptible to scratches and as such 416 stainless steel might be exposed to corrosion.
416 stainless steel is generally resistant to acids to a certain degree. The extent of corrosion resistance will be determined by the concentration, environmental conditions, and type of acid.
416 SS Hardness
416 stainless steel has great strength which can further be enhanced through heat treatment. Aside from the good strength attribute, 416 SS offers high machinability more so in the sub-critical annealed state.
Tensile and Yield Strength
416 SS also features a tensile strength that ranges from 650MPa to 850MPa. On the other hand, its yield strength varies from 250MPa to 375MPa. This is however determined by the tempering temperature introduced during fabrication.
Elongation for 416 stainless steel is 30% for 50mm.
Its hardness, ductility, and elasticity features make it a great choice for use in various industrial applications requiring extensive machining.
- 416 stainless steel has a density of 7750kg/m3
- The thermal conductivity of 416 SS is 24.9W/mK at 100°C and 28.7W/mK at 500°C
- Electrical resistivity of 43 at 20°C
- Thermal expansion – 9.9 x 10-6/K
- Modulus of elasticity is approximately 200GPa
Comparing 416 vs. 316 Stainless Steel
As much as both 416 and 316 are types of stainless steel and iron alloys, they compare to each other in the following ways:
416 SS Bar
416 stainless steel is strengthened by heating while 316 is strengthened by cooling.
- Tensile Strength
316 stainless steel has a higher tensile strength ranging from 520-1180MPa as compared to 416 SS which ranges from 510-800MPa.
- Pitting and Corrosion
In terms of pitting, 416 is less resistant and 316 takes the lead.
- Brinell Hardness
The Brinell hardness for 316 stainless steel ranges from 160-360HB while that of 416 stainless steel varies from 230-320HB.
- Elastic Modulus
The elastic modulus for 316 stainless steel (200GPa) is slightly higher than that of 416 stainless steel (190GPa).
- Shear Strength
The shear strength for 316 stainless steel ranges from 350MPa to 690MPa while that of 416 ss is 340MPa-480MPa
Currently, 316 retails at a higher price compared to 416 stainless steel.
316 Stainless Steel Bars
Fabricating SS 416
|Machining 416 SS||-Highly machinable SS grade
-Different machining processes such as drilling, turning, and milling can be used.
-Machinability can be enhanced by introducing Sulphur.
|Welding 416 SS||-Has poor weldability owing to high amounts of Sulphur and its hardening ability.
-All welding methods can be applied apart from oxyacetylene which might cause cracking.
-To perform welding,416 SS is heated at 200-300°C.
|Annealing Properties||-Annealing 416 requires a temperature ranging from 815-900°C. Air-cooling is done afterward.|
|Heat treatment properties||-Annealing, hardening, and tempering are the processes involved in the heat treatment of 416 SS.
-Hardening is done through heating at 925-1010°C. Tempering and quenching follow.
-In tempering, 416 SS is first socked for 1 hour and later air-cooled. This process requires a temperature ranging from 650-750°C.
-416 SS is strengthened by heating at temperatures between 815°C-900°C for 30minutes and cooling afterward at 30°C for 1hr. Later air-cooling is done
Forms Stainless Steel 416 Exist
416 SS Sheet
416 stainless steel sheets are created when the material is rolled through a mill which afterwards produces a thin and long product.
The corrosion resistance nature of these metals makes 416 stainless steel sheets suitable for several industrial applications.
The steel sheets come in a variety of forms such as;
- Brushed stainless steel sheet
- Sandblasted stainless steel sheet
- Smooth finishes
416 Stainless Steel Sheets
416 Stainless Steel Rod
Stainless steel rod exhibits a cylindrical shape. Normally, 416 stainless steel rods are used in several applications, for example; building tunnels, foundations, door handles, bridges, and barrier walls among others.
Due to its corrosion resistance feature, it can be used in hostile environments including saline conditions. 426 stainless steel rod comes in a variety of sizes which are measured by calculating the diameter. Not only are 416 stainless steel rods non-porous but also have greater strength.
416 Stainless Steel Rod
416 Grade Stainless Steel Pipe
As the name implies, the main application of 416 stainless steel pipe is manufacturing pipes used to transport gases or fluids. The excellent features that stainless steel exhibit makes it ideal for this application as well as in pharmaceutical, food, and beverage applications.
In as much as the terms “pipe” and “tube” are often used to describe the same thing, they differentiate. While the interior diameter is used to measure pipes, tubes are measured using the exterior diameter and thickness.
416 Stainless Steel Pipe
416 Stainless Steel Bar
416 stainless steel is a free-machining type of martensitic stainless steel. To increase its strength, 416 stainless steel undergoes heat treatment.
Stainless steel bars are not only used in the production of kitchenware, and fasteners but also in the construction and automobile industry.
416 SS Bar
Stainless Steel 416 Applications
416 stainless steel displays high machinability. Therefore, some of the common applications include:
- Nuts and bolts
- Valves and motor shafts
- Automatic screw machine parts
- Washing machine parts
- Pump shafts
Is there Stainless Steel 416 Grade Equivalent?
Yes. 410 stainless steel is equivalent to 416 SS.
How does 416 vs 304 SS Compare?
- The nickel content in 304 stainless steel is 8% while 416 stainless steel has no extra nickel content
- On average, 416 SS has better corrosion resistance properties than 304 SS.
- The chemical compositions of each differently affect their strength. When it comes to durability, 416 SS is better.
- On the other hand, 304 stainless steel is best suited for applications that require strength owing to its toughness.
416 stainless steel is undoubtedly an exceptional type of stainless steel that presents several admirable properties which facilitate industrial and other developments.
Its high machinability and resistance to corrosion make it the best fit for use in food processing equipment, automotive parts, and pumps among other applications.
Grade 416 – Source: AZO Materials
Stainless Steel Composition – Source: Tuolian Metal