Alloy 31

Alloy 31 Sheet
Alloy 31 Sheet
Alloy 31 Pipe
Alloy 31 Pipe
Alloy 31 Bar
Alloy 31 Bar
Alloy 31 Rod
Alloy 31 Rod
Alloy 31 Strip
Alloy 31 Strip
Alloy 31 Coil
Alloy 31 Coil
6 Products Found.

A Beginner’s Guide To Alloy 31

Iron alloys have become especially popular over the past few years, with their impressive ability to combine corrosion resistance and high-temperature functionality – amongst other things. 

These alloys are especially prominent in the manufacturing industry, where their unique properties come in handy in the development of several components and materials. And, as they remain highly varied, one of the Iron alloys getting more praise recently has been Alloy 31. 

In this article, we’ll look into all you need to know about this fledgling alloy – from the Alloy 31 composition and build to possible Alloy 31 equivalent options and more. 

Definition and Overview of Alloy 31 

As explained earlier, Alloy 31 is an alloy with Iron as its primary base. 

Known as an austenitic stainless steel alloy, this product also comes with a significant amount of Nickel and Chromium in its build. For industrial applications, austenitic stainless steel is one of the most prominent families of stainless steel available. And, the Alloy 31 stainless steel is, without a doubt, one that continues to get massive appeal among industrialists and manufacturers. 

As explained earlier, Alloy 31 comes primarily with Iron and Chromium as its major constituent materials. Also known as UNS N08031 or DIN 1.4562, the alloy was developed by VDM Metals and was built as a means of closing the gap between traditional Nickel alloys and high-alloyed austenitic special stainless steels. 

Primarily, Alloy 31 is chosen for applications where conventional stainless steel grades may exhibit limited resistance to corrosion. Its exceptional corrosion resistance, high strength, and versatility make it a preferred choice in demanding environments that require long-term durability and performance.

Composition and Alloying Elements 

Iron-based alloys are known for their impressive physical properties and adaptability to different conditions. And, Alloy 31 is no different. So, what is the Alloy 31 chemical composition, and how does it affect the material? 

Composition & Key Alloying Elements Of Alloy 31 

Alloy 31 primarily consists of a mix of elements that can be used at the manufacturer’s discretion. Generally, however, this is how its material composition should look like:

  • Iron (Fe): As we now know, Iron is the base element in Alloy 31. The element is primarily responsible for Alloy 31’s strength and structural integrity, as well as its ability to withstand significant pressure. 
  • Chromium (Cr): Chromium has become prominent as a key element in developing general stainless steel alloys. And, in Alloy 31, you have the same thing. Here, Chromium provides corrosion resistance capabilities, forming a passive oxide protective layer on the alloy’s surface that would help keep it from the damaging effects of oxidation and corrosion. 
  • Nickel (Ni): When you see a metal alloy, there’s a high chance that Nickel plays a part in its build. For Alloy 31, Nickel also helps to optimize corrosion resistance – especially in acidic environments. Just as well, the element helps to improve Alloy 31’s toughness and physical strength, allowing it to withstand external pressure.
  • Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is a crucial element in Alloy 31, offering excellent resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion, and general corrosion in aggressive media. It enhances the alloy’s overall corrosion resistance, especially in chloride-containing environments.
  • Nitrogen (N): The presence of Nitrogen helps ensure that Alloy 31’s strength and stability are improved. This especially comes in handy at elevated temperatures, where the alloy will need to maintain its austenitic structure and corrosion resistance. 

Besides these primary elements, Alloy 31 can also contain small amounts of other elements – including Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Sulfur (S), Silicon (Si), and more. They provide their own benefits as well, ranging from heat resistance to ductility and operational flexibility. 

In most cases, you will find the following compositional percentages of the elements within Alloy 31: 

Element  Compositional Percentage 
Iron (Fe) Bal.
Chromium (Cr) Between 26% and 28%
Nickel (Ni) Between 30% and 32%
Molybdenum (Mo) Ranging from 6% to 7%
Nitrogen (N) 0.15% to 0.25%
Copper (Cu) No more than 1% 
Manganese (Mn) At most, 2%
Silicon (Si) A maximum of 0.5%
Carbon (C) At most, 0.03%
Phosphorus (P) 0.020% at most 
Sulfur (S) No more than 0.010%

It is worth noting that the specific percentages of elements in the material can easily vary based on the manufacturer’s specifications and requirements. You can check the Alloy 31 datasheet for more details, or reach out to a manufacturer to learn more about their Alloy 31 compositions. 

Properties of Alloy 31 

With Alloy 31, you get to enjoy several physical properties. These characteristics make the material especially ideal for manufacturing and other tasks. While they vary, some of the most prominent of them include: 

  • Density: Typically, you can find Alloy 31 exhibiting a density of about 8.1 g/cm³ (0.293 lb/in³). Compared to several other stainless steel alloys, this is comparatively high. And, it bodes well for the material in the most stringent manufacturing tasks.
  • Melting Point: Alloy 31 also comes with a relatively high melting point. The metric usually stands around 1350 to 1370°C (or, if you will, 2462 to 2498°F). With such a high melting point Alloy 31 is perfectly able to withstand a high-temperature environment and maintain its structural integrity. 
  • Thermal Conductivity: The thermal conductivity of Alloy 31 is relatively high – a factor that allows the material to easily transfer heat across its parts. To be fair, there is no specific number for thermal conductivity. This metric will be determined by factors such as the material’s composition and the external temperature that it is subjected to
  • Electrical Conductivity: As you would expect, Alloy 31 conducts electricity quite well too. However, like thermal conductivity, the metric will also depend on the electrical conditions to which the material is subjected.
  • Magnetic Properties: Alloy 31 is non-magnetic in both annealed and cold-worked conditions. This property can be beneficial in certain applications where magnetic interference needs to be minimized.
  • Coefficient of Expansion: Similar to other austenitic stainless steel variants, Alloy 31 also exhibits an impressive coefficient of thermal expansion. With temperature changes, the material expands and contracts conveniently, providing optimal operational flexibility. 
  • Strength and Hardness: Alloy 31 exhibits high strength and hardness, allowing it to withstand mechanical stresses and pressures in various applications. Most Alloy 31 manufacturers do their best to reinforce it properly, and with the Alloy 31 welding process also quite thorough, you can rest assured of the right strength rating whenever you make use of the material. This focus on hardness and strength helps ensure that Alloy 31 is perfectly capable of holding its own when exposed to external pressure.

It’s important to note that the precise physical properties of Alloy 31 can be influenced by various factors, including composition, processing, and specific heat treatment. Therefore, for accurate and detailed information on the physical properties of Alloy 31, it is recommended to consult the manufacturer’s technical data or relevant specifications.

Mechanical Properties Of Alloy 31

Like all other alloys, the mechanical properties of Alloy 31 tend to vary based on different factors – from manufacturing processes to heat treatment and even the type of material – whether it’s an Alloy 31 pipe, an Alloy 31 flange, etc. We’ll look into all of these later. 

However, some general mechanical properties you can expect from Alloy 31 include: 

  • Tensile Strength: In most cases, Alloy 31 exhibits a tensile strength between 650 and 850 MPa (94,000 and 123,000 psi). Alloy 31 isn’t necessarily the strongest material out there, but it withstands a significant amount of stress without breaking its form or needing any additional reinforcement. 
  • Yield Strength: You can find Alloy 31 exhibiting a yield strength of around 300 MPa (43,500 psi). This represents the stress level at which the material deforms permanently, although additional reinforcement can be employed to increase this number even more. 
  • Elongation: Alloy 31 typically has relatively high elongation, ranging from 35% to 55%. The material’s elongation can be affected by heat, but with an impressive level of heat resistance, Alloy 31 should do quite well in this regard. 
  • Hardness: The hardness of Alloy 31, measured on the Rockwell C (HRC) scale, is usually around 30 to 35 HRC. The hardness provides an indication of the material’s resistance to indentation or deformation.
  • Impact Toughness: For most of its applications, Alloy 31 would need to be strong against impact. Fortunately, the material does quite well in this regard, being able to maintain its form even when it comes in contact with sudden pressure or loading.  

In general, these factors and properties can easily vary based on the manufacturing processes and specifications of the Alloy 31 manufacturers. Testing conditions, heat treatment, and other factors can also easily affect the properties. 

For detailed information about these mechanical properties, conduct the Alloy 31 datasheet from the manufacturer.

Alloy 31 Shape Formations

Alloy 31 is also quite ideal for different manufacturing processes because of its flexibility in formation. You can find different forms of the material, each serving a specific purpose. The most notable of these include: 

Alloy 31 Flanges 

An Alloy 31 flange is simply a flange component made from the material. Alloy 31 flanges are primarily used in developing piping systems, which essentially connect pipes and valves or other plumbing components. With the help of these flanges, you can prevent leaks and ensure that the connection is as sturdy as possible. 

With their excellent corrosion resistance and optimal strength, Alloy 31 flanges easily offer different benefits over regular flange materials. They withstand aggressive environments as well – a factor that bolsters their efficiency. 

You can find different designs and types of Alloy 31 flanges, each suiting a specific application. Some of the more notable types include:

  • Weld Neck Flange: The weld neck flange comes with a lengthy, tapered hub that reinforces the entire connection and makes for easy Alloy 31 welding onto the main pipe. Among other things, weld neck flanges are preferred for high-pressure and high-temperature applications.
  • Slip-On Flange: Slip-on flanges have a plain bore that allows them to easily be slipped over a pipe before welding can be done. They are easy to install, although their application is usually limited to low-pressure situations. 
  • Blind Flange: Blind flanges are solid discs that are used to block off or close the end of a pipe. Applications are usually limited to inspection and pipe maintenance, and they provide just enough time for plumbers to get the job done. 
  • Socket Weld Flange: With a socket weld flange, you get a recess or a socket that can hold the pipe end in a welding application. These flanges are perfect for small piping systems, as well as high-pressure applications.
  • Threaded Flange: Threaded flanges come with internal threads that make it possible for easy screwing onto a pipe. Also known to be used in low-pressure systems, these flanges are especially ideal in situations where welding might not necessarily be possible. 

To be fair, these are just a few examples of flange types that can be made using Alloy 31 – or, at the very least, with Alloy 31 as part of the materials. The specific design, size, and pressure rating of an Alloy 31 flange will depend on the application and system requirements, so be sure to consult the supplier or manufacturer for more clarity on the material’s specifications. 

Alloy 31 Pipe 

An Alloy 31 pipe refers to a pipe that is made from or compatible with Alloy 31. The pipes come with functionality in different industries, from petrochemical and pharmaceutical production to paper manufacturing and pollution control and more.  

These pipes provide the same level of corrosion resistance and high strength that Aloy 31 is known for. Just as well, an Alloy 31 pipe will easily provide durability and fabrication. 

However, when purchasing an Alloy 31 pipe, it is important to ensure that it is compliant with international standards such as the ASTM B619/B622 for seamless and welded pipes and ASTM B366 for fittings.

You also need to consider the specific requirements of your application when choosing an ALloy 31 pipe. These include pressure rating, wall thickness, and compatibility with the other components in the overall system. 

Alloy 31 Plates

Here, you have a flat, rectangular-shaped component made from or compatible with Alloy 31. An Alloy 31 plate is used in different industries, just like the Alloy 31 pipe. As long as the application requires impressive strength and superior corrosion resistance, you shouldn’t have an issue. 

You should keep in mind that Alloy 31 plates are usually selected for applications where conventional stainless steel grades may exhibit limited resistance to corrosion. However, when considering these plates for your application, consult with the supplier to understand industry standards and work with them to ensure the right fabrication and selection of the plates based on the specific requirements themselves. 

Applications of Alloy 31 

Much has been said about the material formations of Alloy 31 and how it has helped to transform different industries. Currently, the material is functional across multiple industries – including: 

  • Chemical Processing: Alloy 31 has seen significant application in chemical processing plants. Primarily, it helps in manufacturing equipment that would need to come in contact with corrosive materials – we’re talking pumps, fittings, pipes, heat exchangers, and more. These components come in contact with materials such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, and Alloy 31 helps to ensure that they are maintained. 
  • Petrochemical Industry: In the petrochemical industry, Alloy 31 is utilized in applications that require the handling of chemical products. Columns, condensers, pipelines, and tanks are just a few of the materials that can be developed using Alloy 31. 
  • Pharmaceutical Production: Alloy 31 finds use in pharmaceutical manufacturing, where equipment requires high levels of corrosion resistance. With this equipment having to come in contact with materials like process fluids, cleaning solutions, and more, Alloy 31 helps to make them durable.
  • Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems: Alloy 31 is employed in FGD systems, which are used to take out sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases emitted by power plants and industrial facilities. The alloy’s excellent resistance to sulfuric acid makes it suitable for lining absorber towers, piping, and other components in FGD systems.
  • Pollution Control Equipment: Manufacturers of pollution control equipment like wastewater management system, scrubbers, and more also use Alloy 31. With its corrosion resistance, the material ensures optimal longevity and performance in environments where they are exposed to corrosive gases, acids, and other pollutants.
  • Pulp and Paper Manufacturing: Alloy 31 is utilized in the pulp and paper industry, particularly in processes involving bleaching, chemical recovery, and wastewater treatment. It can also help in developing equipment such as digesters, bleach towers, evaporators, and piping systems that help in transporting corrosive materials and chemicals. 
  • Marine Environments: Another consequence of Alloy 31’s corrosion resistance is that the material operates perfectly in marine and seawater atmospheres. It is used in offshore platforms, seawater desalination plants, shipbuilding, and other marine equipment subjected to aggressive saltwater conditions.

These are just a few examples of the diverse applications where Alloy 31 is employed. The material’s properties make it a lock for multiple industries, and we could see it function in even more fields in the future. 

Advantages and Benefits of Alloy 31 

From everything that’s been said so far, it’s obvious that Alloy 31 provides several notable benefits. These include:

  • Excellent Corrosion Resistance: Alloy 31 exhibits exceptional resistance to a wide range of corrosive media, including chlorides, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and other aggressive chemicals. This excellent corrosion resistance, especially when compared to many other conventional stainless steel alloys, makes the material perfect for corrosive settings and applications.
  • High Strength and Ductility: Alloy 31 is also mechanically strong – a feature that allows it to easily withstand demanding conditions while maintaining its structural integrity. It is also very ductile – a feature that is critical for applications that require material forming and fabrication. 
  • Operational Versatility: As you can see from the previous section, Alloy 31 is an incredibly versatile material. It can be used across different industries and applications, many of which require its unique properties. From chemical processing to paper manufacturing and more, Alloy 31’s versatility is quite impressive. 
  • Wide Temperature Range: Alloy 31 holds its properties across a vast temperature range. It can easily withstand both high and low temperatures, making it suitable for applications that experience significant temperature variations.
  • Resistance to Crevice Corrosion and Pitting: Alloy 31 also excellently resists crevice splitting and corrosion. Both are localized forms of corrosion that can cause significant damage to materials in corrosive environments. But, they have minimal effects on Alloy 31. 
  • Easy Fabrication and Weldability: Alloy 31 can be easily fabricated, formed, and welded using standard techniques. Alloy 31 welding is also quite straightforward, while the ease of fabrication allows for the creation of complex structures and shapes.
  • Compliance with International Standards: Alloy 31 complies with various international standards, such as ASTM and EN specifications. However, it is worth noting that you want to confirm the compliance of your material option with the manufacturer to ensure that it meets the performance and quality requirements set by international organizations.
  • Longevity and Cost-Effectiveness: Due to its exceptional corrosion resistance and durability, you can rest assured that Alloy 31 components will be able to last and stand the test of time. As expected, this can help you save significant amounts of cost over time. 

All of these advantages – and many more – make Alloy 31 a preferred choice in different industries. And, we expect to see even more applications for the material down the line.

Fabrication and Machining of Alloy 31 

Alloy 31 can easily be machined and fabricated using the conventional methods that are applied in stainless steel alloy fabrication. However, it’s important to note that the material’s higher strength and work-hardening tendency means that you need to be careful with the techniques used to ensure successful machining and fabrication. 

Alloy 31 Fabrication:

Below are the steps involved in a regular Alloy 31 fabrication operation: 

  • Cutting: You can cut Alloy 31 using processes such as sawing, shearing, and abrasive cutting. The Alloy 31 cutting process should be done using high-quality cutting tools, and you should be careful to ensure proper alignment to achieve clean cuts.
  • Forming and Bending: Alloy 31 forming or bending can be done using standard techniques as well. These include hot working and cold working. However, it is important to note that Alloy 31 has a higher strength compared to austenitic stainless steels, so more force may be required during forming operations.
  • Welding: Alloy 31 can be welded using commonly used techniques. These include gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW/TIG) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW/MIG). For Alloy 31 welding, remember to use a low heat input and engage the right welding parameters to minimize the risk of sensitization and maintain the alloy’s corrosion resistance. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment may be required for thicker sections or critical applications.
  • Machining: When it comes to Alloy 31 machining, one of the biggest risks is that of work hardening. To wit, we recommend that you only use high-speed steel (HSS) or carbide-cutting tools with sharp edges and low cutting speeds. This strategy helps to cut down on heat generation. And, you should use coolants or lubricants to remove heat and extend the material’s life. Machining operations such as turning, milling, drilling, and tapping can be performed on Alloy 31.
  • Finishing: Once the fabrication is done, you can finish the Alloy 31 surface. This can be done with grinding, electropolishing, and more. The objective is to achieve the right surface appearance and smoothness. 

It is important to consult the specific guidelines provided by the manufacturer of Alloy 31 or seek the assistance of experienced fabricators and machinists who are familiar with working with high-performance stainless steel alloys.

Also, remember that the fabrication and machining processes will depend on your specific dimensions, requirements, and component complexity.

Machining Considerations & Challenges 

While working on Alloy 31 fabrication and machining, you would need to be especially careful to ensure efficiency in the process. Before the process begins, keep the following in mind: 

  • Cutting Tools: You should only use cutting tools that are specifically designed for machining stainless steel alloys. We’d recommend carbide tools due to their wear resistance and strength. Also, ensure that the cutting tools have sharp edges and can help you achieve a clean, precise cut.
  • Cutting Speeds and Feeds: To achieve efficient material removal and cut down on heat, be sure to optimize the cutting speeds and feeds. begin with low-cutting parameters, then work your way up and adjust them based on the machining conditions and performance of the tool. You also want to ensure a proper balance between material removal rate and removing excess heat – the latter of which could cause work hardening. 
  • Coolant/Lubricant: You also need an appropriate coolant or lubricant during the machining process to dissipate heat and improve chip evacuation. Like adjusting cutting speed, this helps to reduce the risk of work hardening and will prolong the alloy’s operational life. A coolant can also help to improve the overall surface finish appearance. 
  • Rigidity and Stability: Ensure that the machining setup is rigid and stable to minimize particle vibrations and chatter all through the machining process. Since Alloy 31 is stronger than most other austenitic stainless steels, this process can’t be overemphasized.
  • Work Hardening: Work hardening essentially leads to increased tool wear and cutting forces. Adequate cooling and low cutting speeds help to prevent it. And, you could also try taking shallow and consistent cuts throughout the machining process.
  • Chip Control: When machining Alloy 31, you need to ensure proper chip control. The last thing you want is for the chip to recut and damage the tool, so be sure to use the right chip breakers and deflectors for the machining operation. 
  • Post-Machining Stress Relief: In some cases, it may be beneficial to perform post-machining stress relief to minimize residual stresses that can result from machining operations. This is particularly important for critical components or applications that require high levels of dimensional stability.
  • Monitoring and Inspection: As expected, you want to keep an eye on the machining process and component dimensions. Inspect the components for dimensional accuracy and to ensure that they all meet all specifications. 

Once again, consult with the manufacturer to follow their guidelines and specifications – and work with experienced machinists to ensure a seamless process. 

Cooling and Lubrication Strategies

When machining Alloy 31, implementing the right cooling strategies is important to help with heat dissipation and prevent work hardening. Some prospective cooling strategies include: 

  • Coolant Selection: First, start by selecting a suitable coolant that effectively cools and lubricates all machines during the process. Most common choices include soluble oils and water-based coolants, but you need to ensure that the option you choose is compatible with Alloy 31 and won’t cause any adverse reactions.
  • Flood Cooling: Flood cooling is a process where a continuous stream of coolant is directed onto the cutting zone during machining. It helps cut temperature and improve cutting area lubrication, while also flushing debris and dirt. In heavy-duty machining operations like that of Alloy 31, it is especially effective.
  • Mist Cooling: You could also try mist cooling, where the coolant is atomized into fine droplets and directed to the cutting area. This method provides localized cooling and lubrication, reducing heat buildup and improving chip evacuation. In cases where you want optimal precision, this might be the best way to go.
  • Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL): MQL is a technique that involves using a minimal amount of lubricant mixed with compressed air. It provides a fine lubricant spray directly to the cutting zone, while reducing lubricant consumption and still providing enough cooling. Plus, it has the added benefit of being affordable and eco-friendly. 
  • Through-Tool Coolant: As much as possible, try to use through-tool coolant delivery systems. These systems deliver coolant through a specialized tool, ensuring efficient cooling at the cutting edge. Besides heat dissipation and temperature reduction, it also bolsters chip evacuation. 
  • Coolant Pressure and Flow Rate: You should be intentional about setting the right flow rate and coolant pressure as you work to ensure cooling. With higher coolant pressures and flow rates, you will be able to optimize heat removal and eliminate debris from the cutting zone.  
  • Proper Coolant Delivery: As the coolant is being fed to the cutting area, be sure to position its nozzles perfectly to ensure optimal delivery. You can adjust the nozzle position as you wish,  with the goal of eliminating waste as much as possible.  
  • Continuous Monitoring: All through the machining process, remember to keep an eye on the coolant condition, temperature, and efficiency. The coolant needs to remain clean, properly mixed, and at the right temperature.

Besides all of this, remember to keep an eye on the manufacturer’s recommendations for proper coolant selection and application as you machine your Alloy 31 material for optimal results.  

Examining Alloy 31’s Efficiency Against Other Alloys 

In today’s industrial market, alloys are an important part of operations. And, with alloy 31 being one of the most popular in the market, you want to see how much it stacks up against several other prominent names. Below is a breakdown that might be helpful for you: 

Alloy 31 vs Alloy 20

One of the most popular alloy 31 equivalent options is Alloy 20. Below, you can find a breakdown of the differences between the two of them

Material Composition:

Alloy 31 combines Nickel with Iron, Molybdenum, and small amounts of materials like Nitrogen and Copper. On the other hand, Alloy combines mostly Nickel and molybdenum, with trace amounts of other alloying elements to help fulfill its properties.

Corrosion Resistance:

Both alloys offer optimal corrosion resistance. However, Alloy 31 does better in this regard – especially in oxidizing environments and acidic environments. 

Mechanical Properties:

Alloy 31 exhibits higher strength and greater resistance to work hardening compared to Alloy 20. This makes it more suitable for applications that require optimal structural integrity and mechanical durability. 

Temperature Limitations:

Alloy 31 has a higher upper-temperature limit compared to Alloy 20. With the ability to be used at temperatures of up to 1,100°C (2,010°F), it compares more favorably to Alloy 20’s range of below 950°C (1,742°F).


Alloy 31 is commonly used in highly corrosive environments such as chemical processing, pulp and paper production, waste treatment, and marine applications. On the other hand, Alloy 20 is frequently employed in chemical processing, pharmaceuticals, food processing, and certain sulfuric acid applications.

Alloy 31 vs Alloy 316

Alloy 31 and Alloy 316 are both stainless steel alloys. So, how do they compare?


While Alloy 31 combines Iron, Nickel, Molybdenum, and other elements, Alloy 316 has Chromium, Molybdenum, and Nickel as its base elements. The latter also contains a few elements like Carbon, Silicon, and Phosphorus. 

Corrosion Resistance:

Like it is with Alloy 20, Alloy 31 actually takes the prize when its corrosion resistance is compared with that of Alloy 316 stainless steel. While Alloy 316 is best used in general-purpose applications and is resistant to atmospheric and chemical situations, it might not perform as good as Alloy 31 in highly corrosive or aggressive conditions. 

Mechanical Properties:

With Alloy 31, you get greater strength and resistance to work hardening compared to Alloy 316. Its structural integrity and mechanical properties are also superior. 

Temperature Limitations:

Alloy 31 has a higher upper-temperature limit compared to Alloy 316. While it resists temperatures up to 1,100°C (2,010°F), Alloy 316 is typically limited to temperatures below 870°C (1,598°F).


Alloy 31 is commonly used in demanding environments such as chemical processing, pulp and paper production, waste treatment, and marine applications where excellent corrosion resistance is required.

On the flip side, the applications of Alloy 316 are most prominent in food processing, pharmaceuticals, architecture, and marine applications. 

Alloy 31 vs Alloy 301

While they are both known for their high performance, Alloy 31 and Alloy 310 have different compositions and properties that make them more suitable for specific functions. Below is a breakdown of their differences:

Material Composition:

The Alloy 31 chemical composition is predominantly  Iron, Nickel, Chromium, and a few other materials. As for Alloy 310, you get Chromium, Nickel, and trace amounts of other materials like Carbon and Silicon.  

Corrosion Resistance:

Alloy 31 also beats Alloy 310 in terms of corrosion resistance. While Alloy 31 is overall solid, it is worth noting that Alloy 310 does well in mildly corrosive environments and can also withstand high temperatures. 

Mechanical Properties:

Alloy 31 exhibits higher strength and greater resistance to work hardening compared to Alloy 310. The latter does have good ductility and strength, especially at high temperatures. And, it also resists thermal cycling and shock. 

Temperature Limitations:

As you’d expect, alloy 31 resists higher temperatures than Alloy 310. The material can be used at temperatures of up to 1,100°C (2,010°F), while Ally 310’s use is mostly limited to temperatures below 1,200°C (2,192°F).


Both materials are generally used in the same scenarios. However, considering that Alloy 31 appears to have better physical and mechanical properties, its use is more flexible. 

Maintenance and Care of Alloy 31 

Proper maintenance of Alloy 31 is essential to ensure its long-term performance and preserve its corrosion resistance properties. Here are some general guidelines for maintaining Alloy 31:

  • Cleaning: Regular cleaning of your Alloy 31 pipe – or whatever material – is important to remove surface contaminants, dirt, and potential corrosive agents. Use mild soapy water or a non-abrasive cleaning solution to clean the surface of Alloy 31 components. 
  • Avoid Contamination: Prevent exposure to chemicals or substances that can potentially damage the Alloy 31 composition. Avoid contact with chlorides, strong acids, strong alkalis, and other aggressive chemicals unless specifically designed for Alloy 31.
  • Inspections: Regularly inspect your Alloy 31 plate components for signs of corrosion, damage, or wear. Look for pitting, discoloration, or changes in surface texture.
  • Preventive Maintenance: Implement a preventive maintenance program to address any potential issues early on. This may include regular inspections, lubrication of moving parts, and checking for proper sealing or gasket integrity.
  • Gasket Selection: Select compatible gasket materials when assembling components with Alloy 31. Use gaskets specifically designed for high-performance alloys to maintain the corrosion resistance and integrity of the joint.

Safety Considerations with Alloy 31 

When working with Alloy 31 or any other materials, it is important to prioritize safety. Here are some general safety considerations to keep in mind when handling Alloy 31:

  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS): Familiarize yourself with the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or Safety Data Sheet (SDS) provided by the manufacturer for Alloy 31. 
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Wear appropriate personal protective equipment to minimize the risk of injury or exposure to hazards. 
  • Hazardous Substances: Take precautions when working with any hazardous substances associated with Alloy 31, such as cleaning solvents, lubricants, or coolant chemicals. 
  • Ventilation: Ensure adequate ventilation in the working area to maintain a safe and healthy environment. Good ventilation helps control airborne contaminants, fumes, and dust generated during machining, welding, or other processes involving Alloy 31.
  • Fire Safety: Although Alloy 31 is not known to be highly flammable, it is important to have appropriate fire safety measures in place, such as fire extinguishers and fire suppression systems, in case of emergencies. 
  • Handling and Lifting: Use proper lifting techniques and equipment when handling heavy or bulky components made from Alloy 31. 

Emerging Trends and Future Developments 

Predicting the future of an industry can be challenging. However, for,materials such as Alloy 31 that continue to get massive adoption in the manufacturing space, several emerging trends that could be interesting to watch include: 

Increasing Demand for Corrosion Resistance: 

Already, we’ve seen a growing demand for materials with superior resistance to aggressive environments and elements. 

Alloys like Alloy 31 are sought after due to their excellent resistance to a wide range of corrosive media. And, as industries continue to face corrosion-related challenges, there is bound to be a trend towards adopting more advanced allows that offer extended service life and reduced maintenance requirements.

Sustainability and Environmental Considerations: 

As the world also focuses more on green industrial activities, there is a chance that environmental impact and sustainability will become increasingly important factors in material selection. 

Industries are striving to cut down on their environmental footprint, and there is a trend toward using materials that are recyclable and energy-efficient. With its long-term durability and physical properties, Alloy 31 can contribute immensely to sustainable industrial practices by reducing the need for frequent replacements and minimizing waste.


Incorporating Alloy 31 into your manufacturing process will provide immense opportunities for efficiency and growth. And, even though we’ve seen the alloy being applied in multiple fields, expansions in industrial activity could cause even more of its functionalities to be explored. 

At Tuolian Metal, we are committed to providing the highest quality in Alloy 31 materials – regardless of the grade or formation. 

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