An element defines the least form of a chemical substance beyond which it cannot be further broken. Again, when evaluating the basic particle of elements, the analysis usually comes to atoms.
Atom – Photo courtesy: Britannica
Within the atom, we have protons. It is these protons that determine the atomic number.
For easier reference, the elements are in tablet format – this is what we call the periodic table. The columns refer to groups while the rows indicate the period.
At the moment, we have 118 elements within the periodic table. The arrangement of these elements is dictated by the periodic law.
Even within the periodic table, it is worth noting:
- Period of an element usually demotes the number of present electron shells
- Group usually refers to valence electrons
Depending on an element’s chemical characteristics, it can be classified as one of the following:
- Alkali Metal
- Alkaline Earth Metal
- Transition Metal
- Other Metals
- Noble Gases
- Lanthanides (Lanthanoid Elements)
- Actinides (Actinoid Elements)
Periodic table – Photo courtesy: Britannica
- Chemical Element – Source: Britanica
- Atom – Source: Wikipedia
- Proton – Source: Wikipedia
- Periodic Table – Source: Science Direct
- The Periodic Law – Source: Libre Texts
Non-metals are devoid of metallic properties existing in different forms such as gas (hydrogen) and solid (carbon). They typically have four or more electrons in their outermost shell, attracting electrons to form negative ions. The rigid state of electrons in non-metals makes them ideally poor conductors.
Non-metal Elements in Periodic Table
Non-metals – Source: Wikipedia
Non Metals in Periodic Table – Source: Angelo
Atomic Number: 1
Electrons per shell: 1,
- Hydrogen is a colorless and odorless gas that makes the bulk of all naturally available elements at 75%.
- It is also non-toxic and the lightest element existing as a gas in standard conditions with the lowest density.
- Hydrogen is highly reactive besides being flammable. Actually, this explains why it forms compounds easily.
- There are three hydrogen isotopes: protium, deuterium, and tritium. Protium makes up about 99.98% of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium have one and two neutrons respectively finding use in nuclear reactions.
- The energy content per unit mass of hydrogen is high, allowing large energy storage in a small volume making it useful as a fuel.
- Hydrogen can be produced from various sources such as water and also burns cleanly, with water vapor as the only byproduct.
Hydrogen Atom – Source: Science Direct
Hydrogen – Source: UTK
Atomic Number: 6
Electrons per shell: 2, 4
- One of the most abundant elements in the universe by mass, capable of forming covalent bonds with other elements, itself included.
- The three isotopes of carbon that occur naturally include: carbons 12 through to 14. Carbon-12 is the most common making about 98.93%, Carbon-13 about 1.07% and carbon-14 that is radioactive, in trace amounts.
- Carbon can exist in different forms as allotropes as follows: graphite, diamond, amorphous carbonand fullerenes. Graphite is a very soft substance while diamond is the hardest of all substances occurring naturally.
Carbon Atom – Source: Live Science
Carbon Isotopes – Source: GML
Atomic Number: 7
Electrons per shell: 2, 5
- Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas constituting about 78% of the atmosphere by volume. As such it is one of the most abundant elements by mass.
- Nitrogen occurs in various forms like gas, liquid, and solid; molecular nitrogen (N2) being the most common. It can also be found in the form of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), among others.
- Nitrogen finds industrial use in the production of fertilizers, refrigerants, and chemical manufacture such as nylon, nitric acid, and explosives. Nitrogen prevents spoilage in the food industry while it is used in blood and tissue samples preservation in the medical world.
- Nitrogen is a component of all amino acids as building blocks of proteins and nucleic acids making it an essential life element.
- It is a critical component of chlorophyll and thus growth of plants, allowing conversion of sunlight into energy via photosynthesis.
Nitrogen – Source: Wikipedia
Nitrogen Atom – Source: Science Direct
Oxygen Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 8
Electrons per shell: 2, 6
- Oxygen is a diatomic element (combines an atom pair to form a molecule) that is highly reactive, colorless and odorless. The atmosphere consists about 21% oxygen which is also available in the earth’s crust in combined forms such as oxides.
- Oxygen is a crucial element as it support life by being central to the respiration process in animal cells. It is through respiration that living organisms can create energy from their dietary intake.
- Furthermore, it is utilized in hospitals and emergency centers to provide allow the body sustain core functions.
- Oxygen can be highly reactive, capable of exploding and causing fires in highly concentrated forms.
Oxygen Element – Source: RSC
Oxygen Atom – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 15
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 5
- Phosphorus takes different forms as allotropes i.e. black, red, and white phosphorous and is highly reactive.
- White phosphorus is a yellowish and waxy substance capable of spontaneous ignition in air. Red phosphorus is less reactive with more stability finding use in matches and pyrotechnics.
- Black phosphorus finds use as a semiconductor possessing exceptional optical and electronic properties expedient in electronic devices.
- Phosphorus occurs mainly as a phosphate and is an essential element for all living organisms, whose role in biological processes is vital. It is an important nutrient for plants, commonly added to soils as a fertilizer to promote growth.
Phosphorous Element – Source: RCS
Phosphorous Atom – Source: Pub Chem
Sulfur Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 16
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 6
- Sulfur is abundant in the earth’s crust present in many minerals like sulfates and sulfides. There are several isotopes of sulfur the most common being sulfur-32 with a half-life of about 15 years.
- At standard conditions, sulfur is a solid with a bright yellow appearance and a distinctive smell as an outstanding characteristic. Not all sulfur compounds are unpleasant though, some finding use in isotope production.
- In its elemental form, sulfur has a low toxicity, however, certain sulfur compounds can be harmful to both humans and animals. For instance, exposure to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems.
- Sulfur is an important element in the production of sulfuric acid, which is one of the most widely used industrial chemicals. Sulfur also facilitates the production of fertilizers, rubber, and detergents.
- It is an essential component of amino acids necessary for protein formation and the production of vitamins like biotin and thiamine.
Sulfur Element – Source: Pub Chem
Sulfur – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 34
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 6
- Selenium is a rare element found in the earth’s crust, usually in combination with other elements like sulfur, copper, and silver.
- Selenium has semiconductor properties allowing its use in production of photovoltaic cells and other electronic devices, and medical equipment like X-ray machines.
- In large amounts, selenium can be toxic with overexposure resulting in health problems like hair loss, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal complications.
- However, in adequate amounts, selenium finds use in dietary supplements such as multivitamins and as a catalyst in chemical reactions.
Selenium – Source: Wikipedia
Selenium Atom – Source: RSC
B. Alkali Metals
These constitute the elements in the first group of the periodic table with high reactive levels and a single valance electron. In chemical reactions, alkali metals lose the valence electron resulting in a positive ion formation making them highly reactive.
They have low melting and boiling points, relatively low density and good conductors of heat and electricity.
Alkali Metals – Source: Stanford
Alkali Metals – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 3
Electrons per shell: 2, 1
- Lithium is a soft and highly reactive element whose density, melting and boiling points are fairly low. It can be found in natural reserves in ores like spodumene, amblygonite, pealite and lepidolite.
- Lithium finds common application in tech gadgets like computers and mobile phones to make long lasting batteries. Lithium-ion batteries feature outstanding properties such as being light, having extended useful lives, and larger capacities.
- Additionally, lithium has been successfully applied in nuclear reactors, in glass and ceramics production, and as a lubricant in aerospace applications.
Lithium Atom – Source: Wikipedia
Lithium Element – Source: RSC
Sodium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 11
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 1
- Sodium is soft. Its high reactivity means you cannot find sodium in its pure form in nature but in combined forms.
- It is commonly used as a component of table salt, used in seasoning and preserving food and food products respectively.
- Sodium also finds use in the manufacture of soap, paper, and textiles, and the production of chemicals, caustic soda and baking soda.
- When in appropriate amounts, sodium is essential in the human body’s nerve functionality and fluid balance. Large concentration of sodium in the body is however detrimental seeing as it can induce blood pressure spikes and heart failure.
- It is 6th abundant element.
Sodium Atom – Source: Pub Chem
Sodium Element – Source: RSC
Potassium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 19
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 8, 1
- Potassium is a soft, silvery-white metal that forms a considerable mass of the earth’s crust making up approximately 2.4%.
- It is highly reactive and can react violently with water, producing hydrogen gas and igniting the hydrogen. It also reacts with oxygen in the air, forming a yellow-orange layer of oxide on its surface. Due to its reactivity, it is usually stored in oil or other inert substances.
- Potassium salts, such as potassium chloride and potassium citrate, are used in the production of medical drugs and as food additives.
- It has several biological functions such as regulating the balance of fluids in the body and nerve and muscle cells functionality. It is also important for maintaining a healthy heart rhythm finding use as a treatment for high blood pressure.
Potassium – Source: Pub Chem
Element Potassium – Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 37
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 8, 1
- Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and can spontaneously ignite when exposed to air.
- Rubidium is found in minerals such as lepidolite, pollucite, and carnallite that make up the earth’s crust.
- Rubidium has a relatively low melting point of 39.3°C and a boiling point of 688°C and is the second most electropositive of the alkali metals. This means that it easily loses its outermost electron to form positive ions.
- Rubidium has a very high atomic resonance frequency, making it useful in atomic clocks and other precision timekeeping devices.
- It is also used in the production of photocells with its vapor utilized in laser cooling and trapping experiments.
Rubidium – Source: Wikipedia
Rubidium Element -Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 55
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1
- Cesium is a soft, silvery-golden metal that is highly reactive with water and air and is the most electropositive alkali metal. It is not found in nature as a free element, but rather occurs in trace amounts in minerals such as pollucite, lepidolite, and carnallite.
- It reacts explosively when in the presence of water resulting in the production of hydrogen gas. It also ignites spontaneously in the presence of oxygen requiring storage in sealed containers under a layer of mineral oil.
- Cesium atoms allow for extremely precise measurements of time, finding use in atomic clocks, which are the most accurate in the world.
- It is also used in the oil and gas industry to detect leaks in pipelines, as well as in the medical field for cancer treatment.
- Cesium is however toxic in high concentrations, with exposure capable of causing severe burns and organ damage e.g. liver and kidneys.
- Cesium-137 is a radioactive isotope produced by nuclear fission reactions with a half-life of 30 years. It can remain in the environment for hundreds of years, causing long-term radiation exposure.
Cesium – Source: Science Photo
Cesium Element – Source: School My Kid
Atomic Number: 87
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1
- Francium is exhibits increased radioactivity and occurs naturally in very few instances. Its estimated total abundance in the earth’s crust is only about 20-30 grams due to its high radioactivity and short half-life (22 minutes).
- It is produced in minute quantities through the decay of other elements, such as uranium, thorium and actinium-227. Francium’s melts at 27°C. On the other hand, it can boil at 670°C.
- Like other alkali metals, francium is extremely reactive and can react explosively with water as wells as other elements, including halogens and oxygen.
- Due to its high radioactivity, francium has no practical uses outside of scientific research. Furthermore, its rarity and high cost make it difficult to obtain and work with commercially.
Francium Element – Source: Chemicool
Francium Atom – Source: RSC
C. Alkaline Earth Metals
Alkaline Earth Metal Elements in Periodic Table
The second group of the periodic table constitute what we call alkaline earth metals noted for their double electron valency. They are called “alkaline” because they form alkaline solutions when they react with water.
Group 2 Elements – Source: Libre Text
Alkaline Earth Metals – Source: Angelo
Atomic Number: 4
Electrons per shell: 2, 2
- Beryllium is a relatively lightweight, steel-gray, and rare hard metal that has excellent strength and rigidity at high temperatures. It is the second lightest metal after lithium possessing outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity.
- It doesn’t exist in its pure form but typically found in combination with other elements in minerals like beryl and bertrandite. Its production process is complex and expensive encompassing mining, refining, and purification.
- Beryllium’s melting point is fairly high and combined with its resistance to corrosion, makes it ideal for us in aerospace application.
- Certain radiation wavelengths can penetrate through beryllium particles without altering properties allowing use in making X-ray tubes.
- Exposure to beryllium fumes or powder can induce complications in the lung due to its toxic levels.
Beryllium Element – Source: RSC
Beryllium – Source: Keystagewiki
Atomic Number: 12
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 2
- Magnesium has a shiny gray appearance and is one of the most abundant elements. It is light, relatively soft and malleable with a melting point of 651 °C and a boiling point of 1,100 °C.
- Magnesium is highly reactive and can ignite in air, producing a bright white flame and releasing a significant amount of heat. Its high reactivity allows it to easily form compounds with most non-metallic elements such as oxygen (magnesium oxide).
- Magnesium finds use in the production of lightweight alloys used in aircraft and automobiles. It is also used as a reducing agent in the production of metals such as titanium and zirconium.
- Magnesium is also an essential nutrient for humans regulating muscle and nerve function, blood sugar control, blood pressure and bone health.
Magnesium Element – Source: RSC
Magnesium Atom – Source: JLAB
Calcium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 20
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 8, 2
- Calcium is a widely available element that is soft making it malleable and ductile with a greyish appearance. Its melting point is 842 °C and boiling point of 1,484 °C with good heat and electrical conductivity.
- It has six isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 40 to 46: calcium-40, calcium-41, calcium-42, calcium-43, calcium-44, and calcium-46. The most abundant isotope is calcium-40 which makes up about 97% of all naturally occurring calcium.
- It can react to form compounds. Take for instance, it reaction with water produces Ca(OH)2 and hydrogen gas.
- A reaction with acids produce hydrogen gas and salt.
- Compounds contain calcium are utilized in glass and ceramic production as well as fertilizer making. Additionally, our bodies require calcium in bone and teeth formation.
Calcium – Source: Pub Chem
Calcium Atom – Source: Science Photo Library
Atomic Number: 38
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 8, 2
- It is utilized in the production of ferrite magnets and electrical insulators, and zinc and aluminum alloys refining. Furthermore, compounds of strontium are utilized in fireworks and pyro to ignite in certain colorations.
- Medically, strontium-89 which is a radioactive isotope is utilized in palliative treatment for bone cancer.
- It exists as strontium 84, 86, 87 and 88. The isotope 88 is abundant (forms 82.6%).
Strontium – Source: Wikipedia
Strontium Element – Source: RSC
Barium Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 56
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2
- Barium has high reactive levels with a Mohs hardness of 1.25. It has a melting and boiling point of 727 oC and 1845 oC respectively with thermal conductivity at 18.4 W/mK.
- While it is naturally absent in pure form, it occurs in combined forms in mineral ores. Some of the mineral ores from which barium is obtained are barite and witherite.
- Barium sulfate finds use as a contrast agent in medical imaging, since it’s opaque to X-rays. This helps in highlighting particular areas of the body.
- Compounds containing barium are utilized in glass and ceramic manufacture and also fireworks. The piezoelectric properties of barium titanate allow its use in electronic devices.
- Barium is toxic and can causing health issues such as gastrointestinal issues, muscle weakness, and respiratory problems when ingested or inhaled.
Barium – Source: Wikipedia
Barium Element – Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 88
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2
- Radium interacts with nitrogen to produce a dark nitride lump when exposed to air boasting a boiling point above 1,700°C.
- It is hardly available found in small quantities in uranium ores and produced through the natural decay of uranium and thorium. Only two isotopes are stable: radium-226 and radium-228, the former as the most stable accounting for about 86% of all radium.
- The high radioactivity of radium makes it a dangerous element to work with, capable of causing cancer and other health problems.
Radium Element – Source: RSC
Radium – Source: Science Direct
D. Transition Metals
Transition metals are characterized by having partially filled d orbitals in their configurations with high melting and boiling points. You find these metals centrally located in the periodic table between groups two and thirteen.
Transition Metals – source: Chemed
Transition Metal List – Source: ThoughtCo
Atomic Number: 21
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 9, 2
- Scandium is a relatively rare element mostly obtained from minerals like thortveitite, euxenite, and gadolinite with an appearance of silvery-white.
- It is a soft, ductile metal that is easily cut with a knife and a good conductor of electricity and heat. It is observed to have high melting and boiling points (1541°C and 2836°C respectively) and a 2.989 g/cm³ density.
- Scandium is easily reacts with air and water, as well as with most acids.
- It finds use in some aerospace and defense applications due to its high strength and lightweight nature. Additionally, scandium is utilized in the manufacture of high-intensity lamps and lasers.
- Some of its alloys are utilized in the manufacture of sporting goods and equipment thanks to the physical qualities they exhibit.
Facts about Scandium – Source: Live Science
Scandium – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 39
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 9, 2
- Yttrium’s availability in the planet is scant and in exists in impure form in mineral ores like monazite, gadolinite and xenotime.
- It finds primary usage as a component of phosphors in lighting applications, color television tubes, and fluorescent lamps.
- Yttrium’s use as an alloying agent is effective in augmenting the physical properties of some materials strength and temperature tolerance.
- It is also an important material in the production of superconducting materials utilized in advanced medical imaging devices and maglev trains. These materials have the ability to conduct electricity with zero resistance at very low temperatures such as yttrium-barium-copper oxide (YBCO).
- Yttrium-90 is a radioactive isotope of yttrium that has seen success in cancer treatment to deliver radiation directly to cancer cells.
Facts about Yttrium – Source: Live Science
Yttrium Element – Source: RSC
Titanium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 88
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2
- Titanium has a high melting point of 1,668 °C and a density of 4.54 g/cm³ with low electrical and thermal conductivity. The natural titanium reserves are unexhausted albeit combined in mineral compounds such as rutile, menachanite and ilmenite.
- It is lustrous possessing highly desired qualities like biocompatibility, deterioration resistance and high strength-to-weight ratio. The high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance allow for its use in making aircraft parts, like landing gear and engine components.
- Titanium is also implemented in medical bioengineering, making body implants thanks to their passiveness when in the body.
- Titanium is also used in the automotive industry to make components requiring high heat resistance like exhaust systems. It also finds use in the manufacture of sporting gear and equipment like ultralight golf clubs and frames for bicycles.
Titanium Atom – Source: RSC
Titanium Element – Pub Chem
Zirconium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 40
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 10, 2
- Zirconium is naturally extracted from ores and is observed to melt at over 1800 °C and boil at above 3,500 °C. Its stable isotopes that occur naturally are zirconium 90, 91, 92 and 96 with an unstable zirconium-94 also natural occurring.
- Zirconium-90 is the most abundant isotope of zirconium, accounting for over 50% of all naturally available zirconium. Zirconium-91 accounts for about 11%, Zirconium-92 about 17%, Zirconium-94 about 18% and Zirconium-96 about 2.8%.
- With a 6.52 g/cm3 density, it exhibits high resistance to induced deterioration allowing alloying with other metals to augment their properties.
- The excellent resistance to corrosion and high temperatures of zirconium permits its use in nuclear reactors as cladding material for fuel rods. It is also used in the production of medical devices like surgical instruments and dental implants and the aerospace industry.
- While not considered toxic, sustained exposure to zirconium compounds can be irritating to the skin and eyes. Inhaling zirconium dust or fumes can cause respiratory complications.
Zirconium – Source: Princeton
Zirconium Element – Source: Chemical Elements
Atomic Number: 72
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
- Hafnium is one of the densest elements at 13.31 g/cm3 with high melting and boiling points (2,233 °C and 4,603 °C). It is not naturally occurring, but it can be found in minerals such as zircon, hafnon, and alvite.
- Its large surface area for capturing neutrons at high temperatures necessitates use in nuclear stations as reactor padding and control rods.
- Hafnium can be alloyed with other elements and used in gas turbines, electronics and superconducting materials.
Hafnium – Source: Wikipedia
Hafnium Chemical Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 104
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2
- Rutherfordium is a synthetic element which means it is not naturally available but instead synthesized in a particle accelerator. It is highly reactive with a high melting and boiling point said to share some similarities to hafnium and zirconium.
- It was initially produced by utilizing neon ions in the excitation of plutonium-242 resulting in Rf-244. Later experiments have produced other isotopes of rutherfordium.
- Rutherfordium displays radioactivity observed through its emission of alpha particles as it decays. Rf-261 is the most stable isotope with a half-life reaching about 1.2 hours.
Rutherfordium Isotopes – source: Wikipedia
Rutherfordium Element – Source: RSC
Vanadium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 23
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 11, 2
- Vanadium is available in small quantities in nature in mineral ores like carnotite, patronite and vanadinite. It is also present in fossil fuel deposits, such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
- There are different oxidation states achievable with vanadium making them ideally applicable in different chemical applications.
- It used to make high-strength steel alloys to improve strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance for use in monumental construction efforts.
- Alloyed vanadium is utilized in making different parts of aircrafts such as engine components and frames.
- The production of sulfuric acid also employs vanadium as a catalyst which also finds use as a component in rechargeable batteries.
Vanadium Element – Source: RSC
Vanadium Isotopes – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 41
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 12, 1
- Niobium is a relatively rare shiny metal with gray coloration with an abundance of about 20 parts per million.
- It is relatively soft and ductile with a density of 8.57 g/cm3 and melting and boiling points of 2,468oC and 4,927oC respectively.
- Niobium is a good conductor of electricity commonly utilized in superconducting materials with excellent corrosion resistance.
- Niobium is used in the production of high-strength, low-alloy steel to augment strength, toughness, and weldability.
- Superconducting materials containing niobium are used in MRI machines, particle accelerators, and other high-tech applications.
- Nickel-based superalloys with niobium component are implemented in areas requiring high-temperature support like jet propulsion engines.
Niobium – Source: Wikipedia
Facts on Niobium – Source: Chemicool
Atomic Number: 73
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
- Tantalum is a rare element primarily obtained from the minerals tantalite and columbite with outstanding corrosion performance. It is ductile exhibiting decent conductivity of both heat and electrical signal with a low CTE.
- Alongside niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten, tantalum is one of the refractory metals with melting and boiling points of 3,017°C and 5,458°C.
- Tantalum can be alloyed with steel augmenting strength and corrosion resistance. Its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion make it ideal for surgical implants and other medical devices.
- Tantalum is widely used in electronic components, such as capacitors and high-power resistors, due to its excellent stability and reliability.
Tantalum – Source: Pub Chem
Tantalum Chemical Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 105
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11, 2
- Dubnium is a highly radioactive synthetic element produced by bombarding a target nucleus with a beam of accelerated particles. It is a transuranium element seeing as it has an atomic number higher than uranium (92).
- It is observed to be unstable characterized by a brief half-life but highly reactive readily forming compounds with other elements. However, its short half-life and high radioactivity makes its use limited except for research.
Dubnium Facts – Source: Chemistry Learner
Dubmium – Source: Wikipedia
Chromium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 24
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 13, 1
- Chromium exists naturally usually in the form of chromite, and is one of the most abundant elements. It is a lustrous metal with a silvery-gray appearance and a high melting point.
- There are four stable isotopes of chromium: chromium-50, chromium-53, chromium-54, and chromium-52 which is makes the majority of all chromium (84%).
- Chromium is very hard and corrosion-resistant, making it a popular coating choice for other metals.
- It is also highly reflective and used in the production of mirrors and in decorative applications.
- Chromium makes an essential element in human anatomy for its role in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. However, exposure to high levels of certain chromium compounds can be toxic resulting in health issues such as cancer.
- A common application of chromium is the production of stainless steel to improve corrosion resistance usually up to 20% of content.
Chromium Element – Source: RSC
Chromium – Source: Wikipedia
Molybdenum Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 42
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 13, 1
- Molybdenum has high hardness rating extracted from natural ores of mineral like powellite, wulfenite and molybdenite. Molybdenum has seven isotopes that occur naturally with molybdenum-98 making the bulk of all naturally available molybdenum at 24%.
- It is highly resistant to corrosion with a density of 10.28 g/cm3 and a Mohs hardness of 5.5. The relatively high melting and boiling points of 2,623 °C and 4,639 °C allow use in high temperature applications.
- Molybdenum is useful in alloying processes where it is combined with other elements such as steel to improve physical properties.
Molybdenum Atom – Source: Science Direct
Molybdenum Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 74
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
- Tungsten is also known as wolfram hence the chemical symbol W, with four known stable isotopes: W-182, W-183, W-184 and W-186. It is a dense, hard, and rare metal known for its high melting point, resistance to corrosion, and high temperature tolerance.
- Tungsten is a rare element found at a concentration of about 1.5 parts per million in ores like wolframite and scheelite. It is produced by reducing tungsten oxide with hydrogen or carbon resulting in a powder that converted into various forms.
- Tungsten is has a pale grayish-white look having one of the highest densities at 19.25 g/cm3. Its melting point of 3,422°C, is the highest of all the elements.
- Tungsten has a high tensile strength, excellent resistant to corrosion and abrasion, good electrical conductivity and a low CTE.
- Electrical contacts in some electronic devices are made from tungsten as well as filaments utilized in certain lamps. It is also employed in the making of missile parts, armor-piercing bullets, and high-temperature rocket nozzles.
- Continuous exposure to fumes or dust of tungsten can result in respiratory difficulties. Furthermore, its accumulation in water and soil can negatively affect both animal and plant life.
Tungsten Element – Source: Britannica
Facts about Tungsten – Source: Live Science
Atomic Number: 106
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12, 2
- Seaborgium is another synthetic chemical element that is highly unstable and difficult to produce usually through nuclear reactions. It is a transactinide elements thanks to its high atomic number and short half-life.
- Seaborgium is typically expected to be a solid at standard temperature and pressure with silvery-white metallic appearance.
- Its most stable isotope Seaborgium-271, has a half-life of about 1.9 minutes making it difficult to accurately describe its properties.
Seaborgium Element – Source: RSC
Seaborgium Atom – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 25
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 13, 2
- Manganese is abundant in nature found in minerals like pyrolusite, rhodonite, spessartine, and hausmannite, and ores like iron ore.
- It is produced by reducing its ores with aluminum, electrolysis or smelting ores in an electric furnace using coke and limestone.
- Manganese is a paramagnetic metal with high hardness level and. The states of manganese oxidation are +2, +3, +4, +6, and +7.
- Manganese has a density of 7.21 g/cm³ and high melting and boiling points: 1,246 °C and 2,061 °C respectively.
- It has high corrosion resistance making it a useful alloying component for materials like steel. It is also used in the production of batteries, glass, ceramics, fertilizers and animal feeds.
Manganese Isotopes – Source: Wikipedia
Manganese – Source: Web Elements
Technetium Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 43
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 13, 2
- Technetium is a synthetically derived element that only occurs in radioisotopes characterized by brief half-lives. It is produced via the induced irradiation of molybdenum-98 that results in the particle technetium-99.
- Technetium is highly reactive with a melting point of 2,157 °C and a boiling point of 4,265 °C.
- It has multiple oxidation states, ranging from -1 to +7, and finds medical application as a radioactive tracer for imaging. It is also used in nuclear medicine to remedy certain cancers and medical conditions.
- Technetium finds use in production of radioactive batteries and steel alloys, radioactive isotopes synthesis, and testing radiation detection equipment.
- Due to high radioactivity, exposure to technetium can lead to radiation sickness and increase cancer risk.
Technetium – Source: Wikipedia
Technetium Chemical Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 75
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2
- Rhenium is a rare, heavy, metal with an abundance of about one part per billion. It has one of the highest melting points and element densities with superior heat and corrosion resistance.
- It is typically produced as a byproduct of the mining process of copper and molybdenum. Using hydrogen gas to reduce ammonium perrhenate can also be used to produce rhenium.
- Rhenium has a high melting point of 3,180°C and a boiling point of 5,625°C and at 21.04 g/cm³ is one of the densest.
- Another property of rhenium is its high electrical resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient. It is thus a good conductor of electricity with excellent mechanical properties, including high ductility and tensile strength.
- Rhenium finds use as an alloying agent in high-temperature super alloys used in the aerospace industry for jet and rocket engines.
- It is also applied in lead-free gasoline production as a catalyst and the production of thermocouples and heating elements.
Rhenium – Source: RSC
Re Atom– Source: Chemical Engineering
Atomic Number: 107
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13, 2
- Bohrium is another synthetic chemical element that is highly radioactive and reactive with a silver-gray appearance.
- It is produced by bombarding bismuth-209 with high-energy, light nuclei such as helium-4 or carbon-12.
- Bohrium has an estimated melting point of around 1,500°C and a boiling point of around 3,400°C.
- It has no stable isotopes with the closest isotope to stability being bohrium-270 with a half-life of approximately 61 seconds.
- Bohrium’s high-energy radiation can cause severe damage to living cells and leading to radiation sickness and death.
Bohrium – Source: Wikipedia
Bohrium Element – Source: RSC
Iron Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 26
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 14, 2
- Iron is the fourth most abundant naturally available element that is ductile, malleable, and capable of conducting electricity.
- Iron is a ferromagnetic material with a silver-grey appearance and a melting point of 1,538°C and a boiling point of 2,862°C.
- Iron is a reactive metal that readily combines with oxygen in the air to form iron oxide (rust). It also reacts with most non-metals and metals, forming a wide range of compounds.
- There are four isotopes of iron that are stable: iron-54, iron-56, iron-57, and iron-58 with iron-56 as the most abundant (91.8%).
- Iron finds wide application such as steel manufacture of steel useful in various infrastructural projects and industrial use.
- Biologically, iron is an essential nutrient for many living organisms required for the production of hemoglobin, DNA synthesis, and energy production.
Iron Isotopes – Source: Wikipedia
Iron Element – Source: Pub Chem
Ruthenium Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 44
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 15, 1
- Ruthenium is moderately reactive with a high melting point of 2,334°C and a boiling point of 4,697°C. Its density is 12.45 g/cm³, and is highly resistant to corrosion and oxidation while capable of transferring electrical signals.
- There are nine isotopes of ruthenium, the most stable being Ruthenium-106. Ruthenium is relatively stable in air at room temperature but forms ruthenium dioxide at higher temperatures upon reacting with oxygen.
- Ruthenium is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions and in the electronics industry to make hard disk drives. Special alloys such as those in wear-resistant electrical contacts and high-temperature furnace parts also employ ruthenium.
Ruthenium – Source Periodic Table
Ruthenium Element – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 76
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
- Osmium is a hard, dense, brittle and one of the least naturally abundant elements, found in small quantities in platinum ores. It’s the densest naturally occurring element, at 22.59 g/cm³, with a melting point of 3,033 °C and a boiling point of 5,012 °C.
- Five out of seven naturally occurring osmium are stable: Os-187, Os -188, Os -189, Os -190, and Os -192. The bulk of naturally available osmium comprises osmium-192.
- The metal is highly reactive with other elements. It does not corrode or get oxidized at high temperature. Osmium will readily combine with oxygen given its multiple oxidation states of +2, +3, +4, +6, and +8.
- Osmium is not widely available but it finds use in making high-strength alloys for the aerospace and defense industries.
- It is however, highly toxic capable of causing serious health problems if ingested or inhaled.
Osmium Element – Source: Britannica
Osmium Atom – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 108
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14, 2
- Hassium is a synthetic chemical element and one of the heaviest known elements that is highly radioactive and unstable.
- It was produced by the bombardment of lead-208 atoms with accelerated nuclei of iron-58 to produce four atoms of Hassium-265
- There is ongoing research to understand hassium’s properties. Currently, only one hassium isotope has been observed to be stable, hassium-270, but with a brief half-life.
Hassium Element – Source: Pub Chem
Hassium – Source: Lanntech
Atomic Number: 27
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 15, 2
- Cobalt is not naturally available as a free element, but in mineral compounds, including cobaltite, erythrite, and skutterudite. It is a hard, brittle, greyish metal with high temperature tolerance, magnetic and catalytic properties.
- It is paramagnetic, exhibiting weak attraction to magnets while exemplifying resistance to corrosion and oxidation. Its density is about 9 g/cm3 and a melting point reaching over 1,490°C with a 2,900°C boiling point.
- Cobalt-based alloys are used in the aerospace and medical industries because of their strength and corrosion resistance.
- It’s also used as a catalyst in making plastics and synthetic fibers while also functioning as an essential component of rechargeable batteries.
Cobalt Electron Configuration – Source: Valance
Osmium Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 45
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 16, 1
- Rhodium is a hard, rare and valuable metal with a silvery-white hue, a high reflectivity, and a high melting point. It is primarily obtained as a byproduct of platinum and nickel mining.
- There’s only one stable isotope of rhodium, Rh-103, and several radioactive isotopes. Rhodium has a density of 12.4 g/cm³, a melting point of 1,964 °C and a boiling point of 3,695 °C.
- It has a face-centered cubic crystal structure, and is durable metal highly resistant to corrosion.
- Rhodium forms a variety of compounds with other elements. However, it does not react with acids or bases, and it is unaffected by air or water at room temperature.
- One significant use of rhodium is in catalytic converters for automobiles where it converts harmful pollutants into less harmful gases.
- Rhodium is also used in the manufacture of glass, as it increases the refractive index of glass and makes it more durable.
Rhodium Electron Configuration – Source: Valence
Rhodium Atom – Source: RSC
Iridium Electron Configurations
Atomic Number: 77
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2
- Iridium is one of the rarest naturally available elements with an abundance of only 0.001 ppm. It has a silvery-white appearance and is the most corrosion-resistant metal known.
- It rarity means one of the most expensive metals mainly produced as a byproduct of platinum mining. There are two natural isotopes of iridium that are stable: iridium-191 (37%) and iridium-193 (63%).
- Iridium is a hard, dense, brittle, and lustrous metal with a very high melting point of 2,447 °C. Its boiling point is 4,428 °C while its density is 22.56 g/cm³.
- Iridium is also a very good electrical conductor with low reactivity to other elements.
- It is used in the production of hard alloys for high-temperature applications, such as jet engine parts.
- Iridium is also used in making crucibles and other high-temperature equipment due to its resistance to corrosion and oxidation.
- Magnetic storage disks utilize iridium which also finds use in the treatment of certain types of cancer.
Understanding Iridium – Source: Investopedia
Iridium Electron Configuration – Source: Valance
Atomic Number: 109
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2
- Meitnerium is a synthetic element that is highly radioactive and unstable with a very short half-life. The most stable isotope of Meitnerium has a half-life of just 3.4 seconds.
- Thanks to its instability, much is yet to be discovered about Meitnerium though it’s expected to behave as other Group 9 elements.
Meitnerium Element – Source: RSC
Meitnerium Element Information – Source: School My Kid
Nickel Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 28
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 16, 2
- Nickel is a relatively abundant element extracted from minerals like pentlandite, garnierite, and pyrrhotite through various methods, including smelting, roasting, and hydrometallurgy.
- It has a shiny and silvery-white appearance, and is easily formed and shaped due to its ductility and malleability.
- There are five naturally stable isotopes of nickel: Nickel-58, Nickel-60, Nickel-61, Nickel-62, and Nickel-64. Most of all naturally available nickel is Nickel-58 at about 68%.
- Nickel is quite hard with considerable resistance to corrosion and oxidation with a melting and boiling point of 1,455°C and 2,913°C. These properties allow its use in making parts for jet engines, heat exchangers and turbine blades.
- Nickel is an essential component of stainless steel and batteries used in electronic devices such as nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries.
- It also finds use as a catalyst in chemical reactions, like production of margarine and hydrogenation of oils.
- Nickel can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large quantities causing respiratory problems and even lung cancer.
Nickel – Source: Wikipedia
Nickel Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 46
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18
- Palladium’s a rarity is exemplified by its availability at a minimal 0.015 parts per million (ppm). Its melting point at 1554.9°C is considered high as is its boiling point of 2963°C with a lustrous shiny white look.
- It is typically found in combination with other metals, such as platinum, nickel, copper, and gold. There are seven isotopes of palladium that are naturally occurring, six of them stable.
- It has a density of 12.02 g/cm³, is highly resistant to corrosion, oxidation and tarnishing, malleable and ductile. However, it is not very reactive and does not readily form compounds with other elements.
- Palladium is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity making it a popular choice for electrical contacts and circuitry.
- It finds primary use in catalytic converters for automobiles, where it helps to reduce harmful emissions of pollutants like carbon monoxide.
- Palladium is also used in making alloy materials for use in the manufacture of watches, surgical instruments, and turbine blades.
Palladium Element – Source: Britannica
Palladium – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 78
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
- Platinum is a rare metal mainly found in deposits of nickel and copper ores. It is one of the heaviest metals, with a density of 21.45 g/cm³, with shiny silvery-white appearance.
- The element platinum exists naturally with six isotopes: Pt-190, Pt-192, Pt-194, Pt-195, Pt-196 and Pt-198. Pt-195 is the most abundant consisting about 34% of all available platinum.
- Its melting point of 1,768°C and boiling point of 3,825°C making it excellent for high-temperature applications.
- Platinum is also a good conductor of electricity and heat, and can be transformed into different shapes and form.
- Platinum is a relatively unreactive metal offering resistance to corrosion and tarnishing. Consequently, it is used in medical equipment, such as pacemakers and dental implants, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion.
- Platinum is a capable catalyst for reactions like the oxidation of carbon monoxide in car exhausts and the production of fertilizers. Platinum also finds use in industries producing glass and in refineries for crude oil.
Platinum – Source: Science Photo Library
Platinum Element – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 110
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2
- Darmstadtium is a synthetic element that is highly unstable first synthesized in the city of Darmstadt, Germany, hence the name.
- Darmstadtium has no stable isotopes characterized by very short half-lives with the longest being Ds-281, with about 12.7 seconds.
- Thanks to the short half-life, little has been uncovered about its chemical and physical properties with predictions suggesting Group 10 characteristics.
- It has no practical applications due to its extremely short half-life and high cost of production mainly utilized in scientific studies.
Darmstadtium Element – Source: RSC
Facts about Darmstadtium – Source: JLAB
Copper Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 29
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 1
- Copper has a reddish-orange color and is widely available, found in various minerals such as chalcopyrite, bornite, and malachite. It is also often mined as a byproduct of other metals, such as gold, silver, and lead.
- It is a ductile and malleable metal, with a relatively low melting point of 1,083°C and a boiling point of 2,927°C.
- Copper has an outstanding capacity for heat and electric signal transfer finding common use in electrical applications and heat exchangers.
- It is highly resistant to corrosion forming a protective layer over the surface.
- Copper is utilized in small amounts by the body to aid the production of red blood cells and enzymes. However, having overly excess levels of copper can result in health complication affecting organs such as the brain and liver.
Copper electron configuration – Source: UMD
Copper Atom – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 47
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 1
- Silver occurs naturally in two stable isotopes: Ag-107 and Ag-109 with an almost equal abundance. It is a largely available element in large deposits.
- Silver has a low melting point of 961.8°C, a boiling point of 2,162°C and a density of 10.5 g/cm3.
- It is one of the most electrically and thermally conductive metals finding use in electrical circuitry and heat applications.
- It is relatively unreactive, although it does tarnish when exposed to air and certain chemicals.
- Silver is highly reflective allowing use as a mirror and other reflective surfaces.
- The allure of silver has seen its use in jewelry, silverware, and other decorative items. It is also used as the light-sensitive compound in photographic film.
- In medicine, silver is used in some wound dressings and other medical devices, thanks to its antimicrobial properties.
Silver – Source: Learning Chemistry
Element Silver – Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 79
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
- Gold is a precious metal, highly sought-after for its rarity, monetary value and beauty. It is a relatively rare element with a natural abundance of about 0.005 ppm commonly extracted from underground mines.
- It is one of the least reactive chemical elements with a relatively low melting point of 1,064°C, and a boiling point of 2,807°C.
- Gold has a yellow appearance with a high density of 19.3 g/cm³ and very resistant to corrosion and tarnishing. This makes it a popular choice for jewelry and decorative objects.
- It is a soft metal whose Mohs hardness of 2.5 to 3 makes it easily scratched. It is however, very malleable and ductile, allowing easy shaping into sheets or wires without breaking.
- Gold is an excellent conductor of electricity and heat, making it useful in many electronic applications.
Gold Element Facts – Source: Chemicool
Gold Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 111
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17, 2
- Roentgenium is a synthetic, highly radioactive and unstable chemical element with no stable isotopes. The isotope coming close is Rg-282 with a half-life of only 100 seconds.
- It is produced by nuclear fusion reactions involving isotopes of bismuth and nickel with an ionization energy lower than gold’s.
- Its extremely short half-life, makes it impossible to observe its chemical properties directly. Instead it is thought to share the properties if gold, silver and copper due to being in the same group.
- Its atomic radius is estimated to be around 138 pm, making it slightly larger than gold’s.
Roentgenium Facts – Source: Chemicool
Element Roentgenium – Source: JLAB
Zinc Element Information
Atomic Number: 30
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 2
- Zinc is a bluish-white post-transition metal with properties of both metals and nonmetals.
- It has a low melting point at 419.53°C and a boiling point of 907°C allowing easy use in different applications. It is brittle at room temperature with a density of 7.14 g/cm3.
- There are five naturally stable isotopes of zinc: Zn-64 (49.17%), Zn-66 (27.73%), Zn-67(4.04%), Zn-68(18.45%) and Zn-70(0.61%).
- Zinc is a moderately reactive metal that readily combines with oxygen and other nonmetals with an oxidation state of +2. It is ductile and also a good electrical conductor.
- Its high resistance to corrosion makes it useful in applications where it will be exposed to moisture or other corrosive substances. As such it is used in the galvanization process where it used to coat iron and steel.
- Zinc can be alloyed with other elements such as copper for instance to make brass.
- Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans required for boosting the immune system, wound healing, and protein synthesis. Supplements made from zinc can address zinc deficiency that can cause growth retardation and immune system disorders.
- Zinc is also an important micronutrient for plant growth usually added to fertilizers to increase crop yields.
Zinc Element Information – Source: RSC
Zinc Facts – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 48
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 2
- Cadmium has eight naturally occurring isotopes with a relatively low melting and boiling points (321.07°C and 767°C) compared to most metals.
- Cadmium is a relatively soft metal, with a Mohs hardness of 2 and a density of 8.65 g/cm3 at room temperature. It is also a good conductor of electricity with a low coefficient of thermal expansion.
- Cadmium is a relatively reactive metal and readily forming compounds with a variety of other elements. It has two common oxidation states: +2 and +1, the former more common.
- Cadmium is used in nickel-cadmium batteries, which are rechargeable with a high energy density. In photocells, cadmium sulfide is utilized to detect light.
- It also finds use as a coating on steel to prevent corrosion and as a neutron-absorbing material in nuclear reactors.
- Cadmium is toxic to humans and animals, with continuous exposure capable of adverse health effects like organ damage and cancer.
Cadmium Facts – Source: Britannica
Cadmium Elements – Source: Wikipedia
Mercury Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 80
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
- Mercury is a unique metal element that takes liquid form at standard conditions. It is a dense, heavy and highly toxic metal with a boiling point of 356.73°C and a melting point of -38.83°C.
- There are seven known isotopes of mercury that are naturally stable with the bulk of it Hg-202 at about 30%. It is highly reactive easily combining with other elements.
- Mercury is used in thermometers because of its high thermal conductivity and its ability to expand uniformly with temperature changes.
- When mixed with other metals like silver, tin, and copper, mercury creates a durable dental filling material. It is also utilized in gold mining operations aiding in the extraction of gold from ores.
- When excited by an electric current, mercury produces ultraviolet light allowing use in fluorescent lighting. The ultraviolet light is then converted to visible light by a phosphor coating.
- Mercury is highly toxic and pollutant capable of causing serious health effects when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.
Mercury Facts – Source: Learning Chemistry
Mercury – Source: Chemical Aid
Atomic Number: 112
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 2
- Copernicium is a synthetic element with very little known physical properties, but believed to be a dense, silvery-white metal. It is expected to have a relatively low melting point compared to other metals with a high density.
- It is only synthesized artificially in particle accelerators and is considered highly reactive with similar chemical properties like other Group 12 elements.
- While Copernicium has no stable isotopes, several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized the most stable isotope being Copernicium-285. This isotope has a half-life of about 30 seconds.
Copernicium – source: Wikipedia
Copernicium Element – source: JLAB
Lanthanides are chemical elements making part of the f-block, located in the sixth period that share similar physical and chemical properties. Lanthanides are also known as rare earth elements, due to their low natural abundance and difficulty in separating them.
Lanthanides Facts – Source: Science Notes
Lanthanides Properties – Source: Libre Texts
Atomic Number: 57
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2
- Lanthanum is the first element in the lanthanide series that is paramagnetic with a hexagonal crystal structure at room temperature. It is a rare element with an abundance of about 39 ppm.
- It is a relatively reactive metal that slowly oxidizes when exposed readily reacting with water and acids, forming hydrogen gas. Its melting point is 920 °C while its boiling point is 3464 °C.
- Lanthanum is a good conductor of electricity necessitating use in some electronic devices, such as camera lenses and capacitors.
- It also finds use as a catalyst in the production of synthetic rubber and as a component in some types of steel alloys.
- While it is not considered toxic, exposure to high levels of lanthanum compounds can be harmful to human health.
Lanthanum Element – Source: Wikipedia
Lanthanum Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 58
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
- Cerium is a fairly soft and malleable metal and the most abundant of the rare-earth metals. It is usually found in minerals such as monazite and bastnäsite.
- It has a melting point of 795 °C and a boiling point of 3443 °C with a density of 6.77 g/cm³.
- Cerium is highly reactive and readily oxidizes in air to form a thin oxide layer on the surface. It can also form a number of intermetallic compounds with other elements, including cerium oxide (CeO2) and cerium fluoride (CeF3).
- Cerium has two common allotropes: alpha cerium and beta cerium, the former being the most common form found in nature. Beta cerium exists at high temperatures above 726 °C and is harder and more brittle than alpha cerium.
- There are four isotopes of cerium that are naturally occurring, Ce-136, Ce-138, Ce-140 (most abundant), and Ce-142.
- Cerium is used as a catalyst industrially in the production of petroleum products, manufacture of glass, phosphors, and electronic components.
- Alloys of cerium are used in the production of lighter flints and steel and also as a tracer in medical imaging.
Cerium Element – Source: Wikipedia
Cerium Facts – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 59
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2
- Praseodymium has high reactive levels and can ignite impulsive upon exposure to the atmosphere. It is paramagnetic, slightly harder than lead, soluble in acids and reacts with water to form praseodymium hydroxide.
- Praseodymium has a melting point of 931°C, a boiling point of 3,204°C and a density of 6.77 g/cm3. Its common oxidation state is +3 albeit possessing multiple such states including +2 and +4.
- There are two stable isotopes of praseodymium: praseodymium-141 and praseodymium-143 which is the most common with a half-life spanning 13.6 days.
- Some strong magnets types utilize praseodymium allowing their use in demanding applications such as generators. It is added to alloys to improve their strength and corrosion resistance.
- Oxide compounds of praseodymium are utilized by glass makers to add color.
Praseodymium – Source: Wikipedia
Praseodymium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 60
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
- Neodymium is not naturally found in its pure form but in minerals such as monazite and bastnasite. It is a soft, relatively stable metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, reacts slowly with water and quickly with acids.
- It has a melting point of 1,021 °C, a boiling point of 3,074 °C a density of 7.01 g/cm³ at room temperature.
- Neodymium is a paramagnetic material with five naturally occurring isotopes: Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-145, Nd-146, AND Nd-148. Most available neodymium is Nd-142 making about 27.2%.
- Neodymium is used in the production of powerful magnets, utilized in many applications, including electric motors and generators.
Neodymium – Source: RSC
Neodymium Facts – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 61
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2
- Promethium is a highly radioactive element that is not naturally available but synthesized by bombarding neodymium-142 with neutrons to produce promethium-147.
- Promethium is a silver-white metal, fairly soft and ductile with a melting and boiling point of 1,046 °C and 3,000 °C respectively. It is highly reactive especially in air and water.
- Promethium lacks stable isotopes with all of its isotopes radioactive the most stable being promethium-145 with a half-life of 17.7 years.
- Promethium has no significant commercial applications due to its high cost and rarity. However, it has been utilized in nuclear batteries to generate electricity through the decay of promethium-147.
- As it is highly radioactive, promethium can pose a significant health hazard if ingested or inhaled. It emits both beta and gamma radiation, which can cause radiation sickness and cancer amongst other health complications.
Promethium Element – Source: RSC
Promethium Element Facts – Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 62
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2
- Samarium is a rare earth element first discovered from the mineral samarskite. It has five naturally occurring isotopes: Sm-144, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-152, and Sm-154 with Sm-152 making the largest share at about 27%.
- It is relatively soft and malleable with a melting point of 1072°C, boiling point of 1803°C and density of 7.52 g/cm3.
- Samarium slowly tarnishes in air and reacts moderately reactive with water, producing hydrogen gas in its reaction with dilute acids. When samarium forms oxides, there are two possible states it can take up +2 and, in many instances, +3.
- Samarium is used in the production of samarium-cobalt magnets, which are some of the strongest permanent magnets known. It is also used as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors, in carbon arc lighting, and some ceramic materials.
Samarium Element – Source: LANL
Samarium Facts – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 63
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2
- Europium has a melting point of 822°C and a boiling point of 1527°C. There are two natural isotopes of europium: Eu-151 and Eu-153 with relatively equal abundance.
- It is a soft metal capable of cutting with a knife that is also highly reactive rapidly oxidizing in air. While it is soluble in dilute acids it is not alkalis and reacts vigorously with water to produce hydrogen gas.
- Europium finds commercial application as a dopant in fluorescent materials, as well as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
- It is a critical component in the production of red and blue phosphors used in colored displays such as television sets and computer screens.
- Europium is also a key element in the production of permanent magnets used in electric motors and wind turbines.
Europium – Source: Environmental Chemistry
Europium Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 64
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
- In its pure form, gadolinium is not very common in nature. Nonetheless it is extracted from ores of minerals like bastnasite, monazite and gadolinite.
- Gadolinium is malleable and ductile with six natural isotopes that are stable: Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158 and Gd-160. At 24.8%, the most abundant of these is Gd-158.
- It has a relatively low melting point.
- In presence of oxygen, the element is highly reactive.
- Gadolinium is utilized in MRI scanning to offer contrast due to its incredible magnetic moment.
Gadolinium Overview – Source: Science Direct
Gadolinium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 65
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2
- Terbium is the ninth most abundant element on the planet with an abundance of approximately 1.2 ppm. It is relatively soft and ductile with a melting point of 1356 °C and a boiling point of 3230 °C.
- It is a reactive metal that slowly oxidizes in air and rapidly reacts with water with paramagnetic property at room temperature.
- Terbium is a relatively electropositive element with a valence of +3 forming a wide range of chemical compounds with other elements.
- Terbium is utilized in the production of magneto-optical storage devices making a key component of the magneto-optical film.
- It also finds use as a dopant in green phosphors used in color displays such as television screens and fluorescent lamps.
- It is one of the few elements that can be used as a fuel in a breeder type nuclear reactor. Its role as an absorber for neutrons that aids in regulating the nuclear reactions via control rods cannot be overlooked.
Terbium Element – Source: Lenntech
Terbium Element Facts – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 66
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
- Dysprosium is one of the rarest elements on the planet found in small quantities in minerals like xenotime and monazite. It is often extracted as a byproduct of other rare earth elements.
- It is soft, malleable and highly susceptible to magnetization, with the highest magnetic strength of all rare earth elements. It is thus used in the production of powerful magnets, especially in neodymium-dysprosium magnets utilized in electric motors and generators.
- The stable isotopes of dysprosium with natural occurrence include: dyprosium-156, dyprosium-158, dyprosium-160, dyprosium-161, dyprosium-162, dyprosium-163 and dyprosium-164. The most by occurrence is Dy-164 at 27% with Dy-162 following closely at 26%.
- Its neutron absorption capacity allows for its use in nuclear plants. It is also used in lighting technology, such as compact fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps.
- Dysprosium oxide is used as a dopant in fiber optic amplifiers while dysprosium iodide is used in nuclear medicine.
- It is difficult to obtain and refine with negative environmental impact making it a relatively expensive material.
Dysprosium Element Facts – Source: Chemicool
Dysprosium Facts – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 67
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
- Holmium is a reactive element that readily forms a variety of compounds with other elements. It reacts rather slowly with water, dissolves in concentrated acids and easily oxidizes in air forming a yellowish oxide layer.
- Holmium has a high melting point of 1,474 °C and a boiling point of 2,700 °C and easily workable. It is paramagnetic at room temperature with a density of 8.79 g/cm3.
- Holmium is implemented in nuclear plants for control purposes and in making magnets with high magnetic capability. You can use it to make protective goggles for welders.
- Holmium can absorb and emit specific wavelengths of light allowing use in the production of special lenses for various optical instruments.
Holmium Element – Source: Environmental Engineering
Holmium Electron Configuration – Source: Valence
Er Element Configuration
Atomic Number: 68
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
- There are minimal reserves of erbium in nature, extracted from ores like xenotime, gadolinite, and monazite. It has a melting point of 1,529°C, a boiling point of 2,860°C and a density of 9.066 g/cm3.
- There are six known natural isotopes of erbium that are stable: Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168 and Er-170. The isotope Er-166 has a natural abundance of about 33.503% making it the most prominent.
- Erbium is a paramagnetic element with the capacity for alloying to improve mechanical properties and refine grain structure. It is a soft metal with a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure at room temperature that can easily be cut with a knife.
- Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers are used in long-distance fiber-optic communications to amplify signals.
- Its weak attraction to magnetic fields can be used to make magnets that are stable at high temperatures.
- Erbium’s use in nuclear power plants to regulating the fission process has been explored successfully.
Erbium Element Facts – Source: Chemicool
Erbium – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 69
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
- Thulium is the second-least abundant of the naturally occurring rare earth elements, with an abundance of approximately 0.5 ppm. It is commercially extracted as a byproduct of other rare earth metals.
- Thulium is a silvery-gray metal that is soft, ductile, and malleable. It has a melting point of 1,545 °C and a boiling point of 1,952 °C.
- Thulium has a high magnetic susceptibility, a property useful in magnetic materials and devices. It can also absorb and emit near-infrared light allowing use in medical imaging applications for diagnostic imaging and cancer treatment.
Thulium Facts – Source: Chemicool
Thulium Elements – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 70
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
- Ytterbium is a rather rare element in the planet with an abundance of only about 3 ppm. It is found in small quantities in minerals, such as xenotime, euxenite, and gadolinite; and alongside other rare earth elements.
- It is a soft, highly malleable and ductile silvery-white metal whose melting and boiling points are 824°C and 1196 °C.
- From its numerous isotopes, ytterbium-174 makes the bulk and is stable given its tendency to not decay. It is one of the most electropositive rare earth elements.
- It’s reaction with both air and water is relatively slow.
- Atomic clocks offer time readings to the highest accuracy levels and they employ ytterbium. It is also used in the production of stainless steel and other alloys as well as imaging in nuclear medicine.
- Ytterbium atoms can be trapped and manipulated using laser beams, making them promising candidates for use in quantum computing.
Ytterbium Element Facts – Source: Chemicool
Ytterbium – Source: LANL
Atomic Number: 71
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
- Lutetium is a dense, silvery-white metal with a melting point of 1663°C and a boiling point of 3402°C.
- It is the densest of all the lanthanide elements and a hard and brittle metal that poses difficulty to work with. It reacts slowly with water and quickly with acids, forming a protective oxide layer on its surface when exposed to air.
- Despite having two natural occurring isotopes: Lu-175 and Lu-176, lutetium is monoisotopic with Lu-175 the only stable one. Lutetium-176 is used in radiometric dating of rocks and minerals while radioactive lutetium-177 is used in radiation therapy for some cancers.
- Lutetium is a trivalent element capable of combining with different elements to compounds utilized as catalysts and in nuclear reactors.
- Lutetium is utilized in synthetic rubber production with its compounds used as dopants in fiber-optic amplifiers and scintillation detectors.
Lutetium – Source: Science Direct
Lutetium Element – Source: JLAB
Actinides consist a grouping of chemical elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers ranging from 89 to 103. They are placed in the bottom row of the periodic table, below the lanthanide series and are all radioactive elements.
Actinoids – Source: Science Notes
Actinide – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 89
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2
- Actinium reserves are a rare find typically accommodated in ores of uranium and thorium in very small quantities. It is can also be artificially produced by bombarding radium with neutrons.
- It is a silvery-white, shiny metal that rapidly oxidizes in air to form a yellowish coating. It has a density of 10.07 g/cm³, a melting point of 1,050 °C and a boiling point of 3,200 °C.
- Actinium is highly radioactive and highly reactive with three oxidation states: +3 (most stable), +4, and +5. It therefore poses significant health hazards such as radiation sickness due to its ionizing radiation requiring proper handling and storage.
- While devoid of practical use, actinium-225 shows promise for targeted alpha therapy due to its high energy and short half-life.
Actinium Element – Source: Wikipedia
Actinium Element Information – Source: Lenntech
Thorium Element Configuration
Atomic Number: 90
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
- Thorium is a highly radioactive metal that is rare with a concentration of about 9 ppm in the planet. There are several isotopes of thorium, with thorium-232 being the most abundant and stable.
- While thorium can be used as a fuel in nuclear reactors, it cannot sustain a chain reaction on its own. As such, it is usually used in combination with fissile materials such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239.
- Use of thorium as a nuclear fuel has several advantages such as its low radioactive waste and risk of nuclear proliferation. Furthermore, it is more abundant than uranium and doesn’t require enrichment, which is a costly and energy-intensive process.
- Thorium reactors can also operate at lower pressures and temperatures, making them less likely to meltdown. However, thorium finds limited use as a nuclear fuel due to inadequate infrastructure for thorium fuel fabrication.
- Thorium also makes a good alloying element in magnesium and aluminum alloys to augment their strength and creep resistance.
- It is also used in the manufacture of high-temperature ceramics, such as furnace linings and tungsten filaments for incandescent lamps.
- Thorium’s high radioactivity can pose significant health risk with its decay emitting radiation that can penetrate human tissue and damage cells.
Thorium – Source: World Nuclear Org
Thorium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 91
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 20, 9, 2
- Protactinium is a highly reactive rare element occurring naturally in small amounts at concentrations of about 0.5 parts per trillion. It is naturally found in uranium and thorium mineral ores or extracted from spent nuclear fuel.
- There are 29 known isotopes of protactinium, all radioactive, with the most stable being Pa-231 with a half-life spanning 32,760 years. It has a silvery-gray appearance with a density of 15.37 g/cm³, and melting and boiling points of 1,600°C and 4,026°C.
- Protactinium is also a pyrophoric material i.e. ignites spontaneously in air, making it highly flammable. It has no commercial use thanks to its rarity and high cost of production left limited mostly to research applications.
Protactinium – Source: Lanl
Protactinium Element – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 92
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2
- Uranium is naturally occurring and radioactive with the second-highest atomic weight of any naturally occurring element behind plutonium. It is found in small amounts in almost all rocks and soils, with few concentrations large enough for economic extraction.
- It is highly reactive, dense, ductile, and malleable, with a melting point of 1132°C and a boiling point of 4131°C. Its half-life of 4.5 billion years makes it useful as a source of nuclear energy.
- The primary use of uranium is as fuel for nuclear reactors, where it releases large amounts of energy through nuclear fission. It is also exploited for military use as a critical component of nuclear weapons.
- Uranium is a toxic and radioactive substance with high level exposure likely to result in numerous health complications. It can also contaminate soil and water sources leading to long-term environmental damage.
What is Uranium – Source: Word Nuclear
Uranium – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 93
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2
- Neptunium has four stable isotopes, the most common being neptunium-237, with a half-life spanning 2.14 million years. This isotope finds common use in the field of research, but with possible application as a nuclear reactor fuel.
- Neptunium is the first transuranic element (element with atomic numbers greater than uranium). It is found in trace amounts in uranium ores and in nuclear reactors as a byproduct of uranium fuel.
- Neptunium has limited magnetic properties and can form a variety of oxidation states allowing use in chemical studies. Since it is highly radioactive and toxic, it is capable of causing both environmental and biological damage.
Neptunium – Source: LANL
Element Neptunium – Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 94
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32,24, 8, 2
- Plutonium is a highly radioactive metallic element that occur naturally in small quantities. However, it more commonly occurs by irradiating natural uranium in a nuclear reactor.
- Plutonium exists in several forms as temperature sensitive allotropes with about six identifiable structures. It has several isotopes, but only plutonium-239 is fissile in that it can sustain a nuclear chain reaction.
- Plutonium’s high radioactivity and toxicity, make it classified as a hazardous material with exposure likely to cause severe long-term health effects.
Plutonium – Source: Wikipedia
Plutonium Element – Source: SC
Atomic Number: 95
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2
- Americium is a radioactive metal that is artificially produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. It can be produced by bombarding plutonium-239 with neutrons or uranium-238 with alpha particles.
- It is soft and ductile with a melting point of 1176°C and a boiling point of 2607°C. It has four allotropic forms that are dependent on the temperature and pressure.
- Americium is used as an alpha particle source to ionize air particles in smoke detectors resulting in a small electric current flow. Smoke particles interrupt this flow triggering an alarm.
- Americium can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, or absorption and remain for years. Since it is highly radioactive, it poses a significant health hazard by its emission of alpha, beta, and gamma particles.
Americium – Source: Wikipedia
Americium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 96
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2
- Curium is a metallic element that is solid at room temperature with a silvery-white appearance. It is synthesized by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles in a cyclotron.
- It is highly radioactive with radioisotopes featuring short half-lives. The melting point of curium is 1345 °C while its boiling point is 3110 °C.
- Curium is a highly reactive element that readily forms compounds with most non-metals, organic and inorganic ligands. It has a relatively stable divalent state, but its most common oxidation states are +3 and +4.
- Curium has no practical applications due to its high radioactivity and scarcity with use limited to research. It emits alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, which can damage or destroy living tissue thus requiring handling with caution.
Curium Chemical Element – Source: Britannica
Curium – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 97
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2
- Berkelium is a synthetic and highly radioactive element with a short half-life produced through nuclear means. While it has many radioisotopes, the one that’s closest to stable is berkelium-247 with a half-life spanning 1,380 years.
- Very little berkelium has been synthesized leading to the discovery of very few of its properties. It is however a soft metal with high reactivity, rapidly reacting with air, water, and acids.
- Berkelium also exhibits magnetic properties whose strengths are influenced by temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it can emit large amounts of alpha particles whose use and effect are limited to research.
Berkelium Properties – Source: Lenntech
Berkelium Element – Source: JLAB
Atomic Number: 98
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2
- Californium is another synthetic element first produced by blasting curium-242 with alpha particles. It is highly radioactive with the most stable isotope having a half-life of about 900 years.
- It is soft, malleable and highly reactive element with a silver metallic appearance that can ignite spontaneously in air. It is also highly toxic and posing a significant health risk if ingested or inhaled or absorbed.
- Californium is mostly utilized as a neutron source in nuclear reactors. Californium-252 is one of the most powerful neutron emitters available used to initiate nuclear reactions in applications including nuclear plants.
Facts about Californium – Source: Live Science
Californium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 99
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2
- Einsteinium is an extremely rare element, initially synthesized by bombarding a sample of plutonium-239 with neutrons.
- It is highly reactive and soluble in acids with undefined melting and boiling points. Physical and chemical properties of this element are scant stemming from the difficulty in synthesizing it and radioisotopes’ short half-lives.
- The most stable isotope is einsteinium-252, with a half-life of about 471 days other having much shorter half-lives. It is therefore, unexpected to discover einsteinium has very few practical applications.
- Some research work seeks to study its properties in relation to other elements in n nuclear reactions. Its use as a radiation source for radiation therapy and in some nuclear batteries has been explored.
Element Einsteinium – Source: JLAB
Einsteinium – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 100
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2
- Fermium is a synthetic and highly radioactive element with a short half-life whose use is limited to scientific research. It is typically produced in small quantities using nuclear reactors and/or particle accelerators.
- It has two common oxidation states: +3 and +2 and is highly reactive with other elements and compounds. Its relatively short half-life makes isolation of fermium in large quantities virtually impossible.
- Research areas aided by the discovery of fermium include nuclear physics especially the behavior of heavy elements.
What is Fermium – Source: Earth
Fermium – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 101
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2
- Mendelevium is a highly radioactive synthetic element first synthesized by blasting einsteinium-253 with alpha particles. It has a density of 10.37 g/cm3 and slowly tarnishes in air.
- It is a highly unstable element that decays rapidly by emitting alpha particles with about seventeen identified isotopes. Its most stable isotope is mendelevium-258 whose half-life spans about 51.5 days.
- Mendelevium’s primary use is in scientific research to study the properties of heavy elements and nuclear reactions. Handling mendelevium requires caution with well-regarded safety procedures.
- The radioactive levels of mendelevium are a source of concern to humans in case of exposure. While its alpha particles cannot penetrate human skin, ingestion or inhaling and cause severe damage to internal organs.
Mendelevium Elements Fact – Source: Chemicool
Mendelevium – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 102
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2
- Nobelium is a synthetic, highly unstable radioactive element with twelve isotopes of which No-259 (half-life, 58 minutes), is the most stable. However, No-255 whose half-life is about three minutes finds common use since it can be mass produced.
- Nobelium is primarily used in scientific research especially in the field of nuclear physics to better understand the behavior of heavy elements.
- Since nobelium highly radioactive it requires specialized handling in laboratories with extreme caution. Otherwise, exposure to even small amounts of nobelium can cause radiation sickness and increase the risk of cancer.
Nobelium Element – Source: Wikipedia
Nobelium – Source: ACS
Atomic Number: 103
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3
- Lawrencium is an artificial radioactive element that is extremely rare and highly unstable, with about fourteen known isotopes. Lr-266 (half-life, 11 hours) exhibits more stability, however, Lr-260 (half-life, 2.7 minutes) finds common use as it supports large-scale production.
- It is produced by nuclear excitation of lighter elements with high-energy particles in reactors and particle accelerators. Production of lawrencium atoms is limited due to the difficulty in creating the conducive conditions for its synthesis.
- Lawrencium is a highly reactive element thought to form compounds with other elements but to an unknown extent. Its use is thus subject to further scientific research study especially the behavior of heavy elements.
Lawrencium – Source: Wikipedia
Lawrencium Element – Source: RSC
G. Other Metals
These metals are located between groups 13 and 16 and comprise those not classified as:
- Alkali metals
- Alkaline earth metals
- Transition metals.
Aluminum Atomic Structure
Atomic Number: 13
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 3
- Aluminum is a soft, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal with a silvery-white appearance typically extracted from bauxite ore. It is the most abundant metal on the planet accounting to about eight percent by weight.
- It is a highly reactive metal that forms a thin, transparent layer of aluminum oxide when exposed to air. This layer offers aluminum one of its outstanding qualities of corrosion resistance by acting as the surface’s protective layer.
- Aluminum has a relatively low melting point of 660.3°C and a boiling point of 2519°C. Consequently, it is not difficult to cast and transform aluminum into various shapes and forms.
- Additionally, aluminum displays high strength with low weight allowing use in automotive bodies and aircraft parts. Its versatility allows its use in packaging food products and making housing for consumer goods.
- It is an excellent conductor of electricity and heat finding use in electrical application such as transformers and making electrical wiring.
Stainless Steel vs Aluminum – Source: Tuolian Metal
Aluminum Element – Source:RSC
Aluminium Alloy – Kdmfab
Atomic Number: 31
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 3
- Gallium is a soft that takes liquid form near room temperature with a low melting point of 29.76°C. Alongside mercury and cesium, gallium is the only other element that is a liquid at or near room temperature.
- It is extracted form bauxite ore usually as a by-product in aluminum processing with reduced amounts found in sphalerite ore.
- It has a low density of 5.91 g/cm³, with two stable and naturally occurring isotopes: gallium-69 and gallium-71. The most abundant isotope is gallium-69 constituting 60.1% of all natural gallium.
- Gallium is a relatively reactive element that reacts with many elements and compounds and soluble in many acids. Its reaction with oxygen results in a thin layer of gallium oxide on the metal surface which protects it from further corrosion.
- It is utilized in the doping process of semiconductors to enhance certain desired properties that influence perfromacne. Gallium is applied in medical applications as a radioactive tracer. It plays an important role in detecting and diagnosis of cancer.
Gallium – Source: Wikipedia
Gallium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 49
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 3
- Indium is a relatively rare element found in low concentrations in minerals, such as sphalerite, tin ores, and iron ores. Many times in this instance, it is extracted as a by-product of the major elements contained in the ores.
- Indium has a melting point of 156.60 °C and a boiling point of 2072 °C with a density of 7.31 g/cm³. It can be easily shaped and transformed possessing limited capacity to conduct thermal and electrical signals.
- It is also highly reactive, quickly reacting with halogens to form indium halides and with oxygen to form indium oxide.
- One of its most common uses of indium is in the production of flat panel displays like television screens and computer monitors. Here, it is used to create the transparent conductive coatings that make touchscreens possible.
- Indium also finds use in the manufacture of semiconductors, photovoltaic cells, and LED lights. When used as a coating for moving parts likes bearings, indium helps reduce friction and wear.
- It is used as a soldering material for electronic components and in the nuclear industry as a coolant.
- Further, indium is used to produce radiopharmaceuticals, as a contrast agent for X-ray imaging and in cancer treatment.
Indium – source: Wikipedia
Indium chemical element – source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 81
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
- Thallium is a soft and malleable, gray metal that is highly toxic and reactive, quickly tarnishing when exposed to air. It is found in small quantities on the planet, usually obtained from sulfide ores such as lorandite or crookesite.
- It has a density of 11.85 g/cm3, and a relatively low melting (304 °C) and boiling point (1457 °C). Further, it is a good electrical conductor whose conductivity decreases with an increase in temperature.
- There are two natural stable isotopes of thallium: Tl-203 and Tl-205, and several radioactive isotopes. Thallium ions can form a variety of compounds with other elements, with three oxidation states +1 (most stable), +3 and +5.
- While thallium compounds have been utilized in pest control, their high toxicity to humans and animals has discouraged their use. It can cause severe neurological damage, with symptoms such as hair loss, gastrointestinal distress, and nervous system damage.
- Thallium in medical applications is employed as a radioactive tracer in diagnostic imaging and as a treatment for some cancers. It is also used in the production of electronic components, optical lenses, and various alloys.
Thallium Element Facts – source: Chemicool
Thallium Element – source: RSC
Atomic Number: 113
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 3
- Nihonium is a highly unstable, synthetic element with a few synthesized atoms that filled the periodic gap between copernicium and flerovium. It is produced by bombarding bismuth-209 with a beam of calcium-48 ions.
- Its physical properties are yet to be fully discovered due to its scarcity. However, nihonium has a very short half-life quickly decaying into other elements within a short span.
Nihonium – Source: Pub Chem
Nohonium Element – Source: RSC
Tin Element Configuration
Atomic Number: 50
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 4
- Tin is a silvery-white and soft metal that is relatively rare in nature with an abundance of about 2 ppm. It does not occur in its pure form but is found in ores such as cassiterite, cylindrite, canfieldite, and stannite.
- It has a melting point of 231.9 °C, a boiling point of 2,270 °C and a density of 7.31 g/cm³. It is can be easily shaped and formed offering great standing to deterioration and capable electrical signal transfer.
- There are ten naturally stable isotopes of tin making it the element with the most isotope count. The bulk of naturally available tin is Sn-120 at about a third.
- A primary use of tin is the production of solder, used to join metal parts in electronic and electrical devices.
- Since it is non-toxic, it finds useful application in food packaging such as canned foods and beverages.
- It is also used in the manufacture of pewter, a soft metal alloy used in decorative objects, such as candlesticks and plates.
Tin Element Configuration – Source: Valence
Tin Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 82
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
- Lead is a relatively abundant heavy metal at 14 ppm with four stable natural isotopes: Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-707 and Pb-208. It is hardly found in its pure form but commonly alongside sulfur in mineral ores.
- Lead has a melting point of 327.5°C and a boiling point of 1749°C with poor electrical and thermal conductivity. It has low hardness rating possessing a large mass to volume ratio and discolors in the presence of air.
- Lead is malleable, ductile and highly reactive with substances such as air, water, and acids forming different compounds such as oxides.
- Lead is highly toxic and can cause severe health complications such as organ damage and environmental pollution through contamination. This has resulted in its reduced use over the years from applications such as making batteries and paints.
Lead element configuration – Source: Valance
Lead Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 114
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4
- Flerovium is a synthetic, super-heavy, and highly unstable element whose most stable isotope, flerovium-289, has a half-life just about 2 seconds. It is produced through nuclear reactions involving the collision of lighter elements, typically calcium-48 and plutonium-242.
- While it is highly reactive, little is known about its chemical properties thanks to its short half-life and difficulty in production. However, the discovery of flerovium was essential in aiding research on super heavy elements and advancing knowledge in nuclear physics.
Flerovium – Source: Wikipedia
Flerovium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 83
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
- Bismuth occurs naturally in the form of bismuthinite or bismite minerals. It can also be found alongside other minerals ores likes copper, lead and silver in small quantities.
- It is a dense element and the most diamagnetic naturally with a low thermal conductivity. Its relatively low melting point is 271.4 °C with a boiling point of 1,560 °C, the highest in its group.
- Bismuth has a high electrical resistance and the lowest thermal neutron capture cross-section of any stable element. It is used in producing lead-free solder utilized in electronic devices.
- Another significant use of bismuth is the production of low-melting alloys used in fire sprinkler systems, safety devices, and electrical fuses.
- In the pharmaceutical industry, bismuth compounds are used to treat certain gastrointestinal disorders.
- Bismuth also has limited use in nuclear technology, such as shielding for radiation and as a neutron absorber in some reactors.
Bismuth Element– Source: Britannica
Bismuth – Source: GSC
Atomic Number: 115
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5
- Moscovium is a highly radioactive synthetic element with its most stable isotope, moscovium-290, having a half-life of just 0.65 seconds. It is produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators through colliding heavy ions like calcium-48, with lighter nuclei like americium-243.
- Its chemical properties have not been clearly defined due to its short half-life and the difficulty in producing adequate amounts. Therefore, use of moscovium is limited to scientific research with no practical applications; primarily nuclear physics experiments.
- Since it is highly radioactive, moscovium is highly hazardous and can cause radiation poisoning if ingested or inhaled. This is however remedied by its short half-life which means that it does not pose a long-term health risk.
Moscovium Element – Source:Live Science
Moscovium – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 116
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 6
- Livermorium is another synthetic element that is highly radioactive, with four known isotopes: Lv-290, Lv-291, Lv-292 and Lv-293.
- As a relatively new element, there are no established applications for it at present. However, it offers scientists in particles research some level of understanding on aspects such as the stability of atomic nuclei.
Livermorium Element – Source: RSC
Livermorium – Source: Britannica
These elements display some of the properties of metals and some nonmetal properties. Some characteristics they share with metals include electrical conductivity and those with nonmetals include having lower melting and boiling points.
Metalloid – Source: Libre Text
Metalloid – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 5
Electrons per shell: 2, 3
- Boron is extracted from mineral ores such as rasorite, tincal, colemanite and ulexite. It is a hard and brittle material usually black or brown in color with low thermal and electrical conductivity.
- It is relatively unreactive at room temperature showing no visible reaction with water, acids, or alkalis. However, at high temperatures, it can react with oxygen, halogens, and some metals.
- Boron-10 and boron-11 constitute the two natural and stable isotopes of boron with boron-11 making the bulk at about 80%. It has a melting point of 2076°C, a boiling point of 4000°C, and a density of 2.34 g/cm³.
- Boron compounds are used in the manufacture of ceramics, semiconductors, and borosilicate glass used for heat-resistant glassware. It also finds use as a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors and as a dopant in the production of semiconductors.
- Boron Properties – Source: Britannica
- Boron – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 14
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 4
- Silicon is one of the most abundant elements on the planet constituting about 27.2% of the crust’s weight. It is mainly found as silicon dioxide (quartz) and in various silicate minerals such as feldspars, mica, and clay.
- It has a high hardness rating and crystalline structure with high melting and boiling points of 1414°C and 3265°C. It is relatively inert and does not react with most substances at room temperature save for halogens and dilute alkalis.
- There are three natural silicon isotopes that are stable: Si-28, Si-29, and Si-30 with Si-28 the most abundant at about 92.2%. Silicon forms covalent bonds with other non-metals capable of forming both tetrahedral and octahedral structures.
- Silicon is a semiconductor, capable of conducting electricity under certain conditions but not as well as metals. Many modern electronic devices employ silicon is a critical component in making microchips, solar cells, and transistors.
- In healthcare, silicon is utilized as a component of some medicines and prosthetics for surgical infusion. It is also used in the production of glass, ceramics, and silicone rubber.
Silicone – Source: Wikipedia
What is silicone made of – Source: Legenday
Atomic Number: 32
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 4
- Germanium is a lustrous, grayish-white element that is hard and brittle. It is naturally available at about 1.6 ppm extracted from mineral ores such as germanite, argyrodite, renierite, sphalerite and briartite.
- It has a high melting point of 937.4°C, a boiling point of 2,830°C and a density of 5.323 g/cm3. It is a semiconductor that can be made conductive by doping through adding impurities.
- There are five natural isotopes of germanium: Ge-70, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74, and Ge-76 which displays radioactivity. Most available germanium is Ge-74 at about 36%.
- Germanium is transparent to infrared radiation, making it useful in lenses for infrared cameras. It is used in fiber-optic systems and as a semiconductor in transistors, diodes, and other electronic chips.
- It is also used in solar cells alongside silicon to form p-type semiconductors increasing efficiency of the solar cell. This way, more solar power is converted into energy.
Germanium – Source: Lenntech
Facts about Germanium – Source: Live Science
Atomic Number: 33
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 5
- Arsenic is naturally found in combination with other elements in minerals such as arsenopyrite, realgar, and orpiment. A solid at standard condition, it’s a density of 5.73 g/cm3, and melting and boiling points of 817°C and of 613°C.
- Arsenic has three common allotropes: yellow, black, and gray, the yellow being the most reactive and unstable. The gray allotrope is the most stable and is the form that is usually found in nature.
- While arsenic is a poor conductor of electricity and heat, its conductivity can be improved by doping with impurities.
- Arsenic is a relatively reactive element capable of forming both covalent and ionic compounds. Its oxidation states vary from -3 to +5 reacting with oxygen to form arsenic oxide.
- It is used in the semiconductor industry to manufacture electronic components such as diodes and transistors. Arsenic compounds are used in the production of glass, pesticides, herbicides, ceramics, and pigments.
- Arsenic is a toxic element whose exposure to high levels can result in health complications such as respiratory failure. It is a classified human carcinogen to which long-term exposure to low levels can increase risk of cancer.
Arsenic – source: Wikipedia
Arsenic Facts – Source: Science Direct
Atomic Number: 51
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 5
- The natural availability of antimony is low at 0.2 ppm found mainly in the sulfide mineral ore of stibnite. It is also available in minor deposits in antimonite, kermesite and ores containing other elements such as silver, lead and gold.
- Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, with a lustrous gray appearance that can take on a bluish or silvery tint. It is brittle with a melting point of 357.6 °C and a boiling point of 1,485 °C.
- There are two naturally stable isotopes of antimony: Sb-121 comprising 57.36% and Sb-123, 42.64%. Antimony also has several radioisotopes with Sb-125 having the longest half-life spanning 2.75 years.
- Antimony is used as a dopant in the semiconductor industry to make electronic devices such as diodes and transistors.
- It is added to lead-acid batteries to increase their durability and resistance to corrosion through an alloying process.
- Antimony trioxide is used as a flame retardant in plastics and textiles working by releasing water vapor when exposed to heat.
Antimony – Source: Britannica
Antimony Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 52
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 6
- Tellurium is one of the rarest elements with a concentration of about 0.001 ppm extracted in small amounts from porphyry copper ore. It is a relatively soft element with a melting point of 449.5 °C and a boiling point of 988 °C.
- Tellurium naturally occurs in eight isotopes: tellurium-120, tellurium-122, tellurium-123, tellurium-124, tellurium-125, tellurium-126, tellurium-128, and tellurium-130. Six of these display stability while two, Te-128 and Te-130 display some radioactivity.
- Tellurium can form compounds with other elements, including gold, silver, copper, and lead.
- Tellurium is contained in cadmium telluride solar cells that are implemented in photovoltaic panels. It is also used in making thermoelectric materials which transform heat into electricity.
Tellurium – Source: Wikipedia
Tellurium Element – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 84
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
- Polonium is a rare and highly radioactive metal, with a melting point of 254 °C and a boiling point of 962 °C. Trace amounts of polonium are found in uranium ores produced through the decay of uranium and thorium.
- Polonium forms compounds with elements such as oxygen, sulfur, halogens and acids forming polonium salts with the latter. It is, however, highly radioactive with all its known isotopes displaying radioactivity.
- While its use is limited, it has been utilized as a heat source in spacecraft and as a static eliminator in industrial processes.
- Polonium is highly toxic and radioactive, emitting alpha particles which can damage living cells resulting in radiation sickness or even death.
Polonium Element – Source: Britannica
Polonium – Source: Wikipedia
Halogens consist the elements located in Group 17 of the periodic table with high reactivity levels thanks to their valency. They have a tendency to gain an electron in order to achieve a stable electron configuration making them strong oxidizing agents.
Halogen – Source: Angelo
Halogens – Source: Chem Talk
Fluorine Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 9
Electrons per shell: 2, 7
- Fluorine is quite available in natural reserves at about 700 ppm though not in its pure form. It typically occurs in fluoride forms in ores such as fluorite (primary source) antozonite, cryolite and fluorapatite.
- It is the most electronegative element, strongly attracting electrons in its outermost shell thus making it highly reactive. It displays strong oxidizing tendencies reacting with virtually every other elements, save for argon, helium and neon.
- Fluorine is a pale yellow-green gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions. When fluorine combines with hydrogen, it forms a strong bond called hydrogen fluoride, which a highly corrosive and toxic gas.
- It is a low density diatomic molecule with a boiling point of -188.1°C and a melting point of -219.6°C. Hydrofluoric acid finds industrial usage in catalyzing petroleum refining process and the synthesis of refrigerants.
- Fluorine finds wide use in industry to produce compounds, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, used in cooking utensils and industrial equipment. It is also an integral component in the production of uranium for nuclear fuel.
- It is an essential chemical for oral health as it is integral to the development of enamel and also prevention of tooth decay. An excessive intake though can lead to fluorosis where the teeth are stained.
- However, fluorine has high toxic levels that can be fatal if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. Its toxicity stems from its strong oxidizing properties, capable of damaging tissues and organs.
Fluorine Electrons Configuration – Source: UMD
Fluorine Element Information – Source: RSC
Atomic Number: 17
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 7
- Chlorine takes gaseous form at standard conditions known for its characteristic pungent odor, high reactive levels and oxidizing property. It is heavier than air and soluble in water, where it forms hydrochloric acid.
- It does not occur in its pure form naturally due to its reactivity, but exists abundantly in chloride form to about 126 ppm. Chlorine is found in various minerals such as halite and sylvite; and in large concentrations in sea water as sodium chloride.
- Its melting point is -101.5 °C and its boiling point is -34.04 °C. There are two naturally stable isotopes of chlorine, Cl-35 and Cl-37, the former constituting about 76% while the latter makes 24%.
- Chlorinated solvents are utilized in the synthesis and manufacture of pesticides and additives in polymerization like making PVCs. Chlorine is a well-known additive in water treatment plants for killing germs and also disinfecting pool water.
- It’s also commonly employed as a bleaching agent, finding use in detergents, and bleaching wood pulp, textiles, and paper products.
- Chlorine gas is toxic with sustained exposure to high concentrations observed to cause respiratory difficulties and even death. Long-term exposure to low concentrations of chlorine gas can cause chronic bronchitis, asthma, and other respiratory problems.
Chlorine atomic structure – source: Science Photo
Chlorine – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 35
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 7
- Bromine is a reddish-brown, volatile liquid easily vaporized at room temperature, forming a red-brown gas with a pungent odor. It is soluble in water with a boiling and melting point of 58.8°C and -7.2°C and a density of 3.1028 g/cm3.
- There are fewer deposits of bromine than chlorine and fluorine, with about 2.5 ppm availability in the form of bromides. It is much more concentrated in ocean water, salt lakes and brine reservoirs from where it is mostly extracted.
- Bromine is a highly reactive readily combining with other elements with violent reactions particularly in the presence of water. There are two natural and stable isotopes of bromine, Br-79 and Br-81, with almost similar concentrations at 51% and 49% respectively.
- It is a strong bleaching agent also utilized as a disinfectant and sanitizer particularly in swimming pools and hot tubs.
- Bromine can be harmful when it enters the body causing irritation as well as gastrointestinal distress and headaches. Long-term exposure can lead to neurological and behavioral disorders, including memory loss and irritability.
Bromine Element – Source: Wikipedia
Facts about Bromine – Source: RSC
Iodine Element Structure
Atomic Number: 53
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 7
- Iodine takes a lustrous and solid purple-black form at standard conditions but readily sublimes into a deep violet gas. It has a density of 4.93 g/cm3 and a melting point of 113.7 °C.
- Among stable halogens, iodine is the least naturally available at about 0.5 ppm in iodate ores such as lautarite and dietzeite. It is also found in higher concentrations in seawater and seaweed.
- While there are several isotopes of iodine, only iodine-127 is naturally stable with the rest highly radioactive. It is highly reactive with strong oxidizing properties forming iodides with metals and covalent compounds with non-metals.
- Iodine is included in some salts to tackle the deficiency in diet and consequently related illness such as hypothyroidism and goiter. In this role, iodine is essential in the production of thyroid hormones, necessary in the regulation of metabolism and growth.
- Iodine also finds important use as a disinfectant and antiseptic, and in making some pharmaceutical products.
Iodine Element – Source: RSC
Facts about Iodine – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 85
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7
- Astatine has the least available reserves in nature that displays high radioactive levels. Its four isotopes that are naturally occurring: At-215, At-217, At-218, and At-219 result from the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium.
- It is has a dark, silvery-gray tone with further physical description limited by its unavailability. It is, however, a highly reactive element capable of forming covalent bonds with other compounds.
- Astatine’s 39 radioisotopes are more common with astatine-210 the most stable, with a half-life of 8.1 hours. Research and medical applications conventionally employ astatine-211 whose half-life spans 7.2 hours.
- Astatine-211 has found successful use in some cancer treatment efforts altogether with diagnosing and imaging endeavors.
Astatine Element – Source: RSC
Astatine – Source: Pub Chem
Atomic Number: 117
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 7
- Tennessine is a highly radioactive synthetic element whose isotopes have a very short half-life not exceeding a second. While determining its individual properties poses great difficulty thanks to its radioactivity, it is observed to share halogenic properties.
- It is predicted to be highly reactive and expected to have a high electron affinity and electronegativity. The discovery of tennessine is however, a major step in unearthing intricate details related to the physics and chemistry of matter.
Tennessine – Source: RSC
Tennessine Element – Source: Pub Chem
J. Noble Gases
Noble gases comprises elements located in Group 18 known for their very low reactivity due to their stable electron configurations. They have full electron shell.
As a result, these gases are chemically inert.
Noble Gases – Source: Science Aid
Types of Noble Gases – Source: Chem Talk
He Electron Configuration
Atomic Number: 2
Electrons per shell: 2,
- Helium is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-toxic gas that comes second in terms of lightness and abundance. It constitutes about 24% of the total elemental mass but with a relatively low concentration in the atmosphere at 5.2 ppm.
- There are large concentrations of helium in mineral ores like uraninite and monazite containing uranium and thorium resulting from radioactive decay. It has one of the lowest boiling and melting points and is incapable of solidifying by cooling at normal pressure.
- Helium is highly stable not easily reacting with other elements or compounds thanks to a full valence electron shell. Subjecting helium to extreme conditions such as high pressure and temperature can however result formation of compounds with other elements.
- While helium is a gas at room temperature and pressure, it can be liquefied at extremely low temperatures and high pressures. It is also highly compressible allowing use in the separation and analysis of complex mixtures in gas chromatography.
- Helium rises in air due to its low density which is one of the lowest. This property allows use in air balloons, airships, and blimps.
- In gas welding, helium creates an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation also working as a coolant in nuclear reactors.
- When decompressing, divers use helium which is capable of acting as a coolant in cold-centered surgeries.
Helium Element – Source: Britannica
Helium Isotopes – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 10
Electrons per shell: 2, 8
- Neon has a bright reddish-orange glow when subjected to an electric current but lacks a distinct color, smell or taste. Its concentration by volume in the atmosphere is about 18.2 ppm and even much lower in the crust.
- It can be commercially produced by subjecting liquefied air to fractional distillation. It less dense than air with low boiling and melting points and chemically inert except under extreme conditions.
- There are three isotopes of neon that are stable: Ne-20, Ne-21, and Ne-22, the bulk of it being Ne-20 at 90.48%. Neon is used in high-voltage indicators and making neon signs which utilize the gas in creating bright and colorful light displays.
Neon Element – Source: Learning Chemistry
Neon Isotopes – Source: Wikipedia
Atomic Number: 18
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 8
- Argon has generally fair concentration in the atmosphere making about one percent in volume with no distinct color, smell or taste. It is typically produced by the distillation of liquid air, usually collected in process meant to harvest oxygen and nitrogen.
- It takes a gaseous form at standard conditions boiling at a low -185.8°C and melting at -189.3°C. Argon has very low solubility in water but is denser than air being almost two and a half times heavier.
- Argon’s main natural and stable isotopes are Ar-40(99.6%), Ar-36 (0.34%) and Ar-38 (0.06%). Like other noble gases, argon is largely unreactive under normal conditions.
- Argon finds use as a shielding gas in gas welding the production of semiconductor chips. Special light bulbs utilize argon to create an inert atmosphere around the tungsten thus preventing it from burning up.
- While by itself, it is considered non-toxic, it can displace oxygen in poorly ventilated spaces resulting in suffocation.
Argon Element – Source: RSC
Argon Isotopes – Source: USGS
Atomic Number: 36
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 8
- Krypton is a monatomic element existing as individual atoms rather than molecules that is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. It is denser than air and is relatively rare in the atmosphere, comprising only about 1 ppm by volume.
- It is naturally produced through the decay of certain isotopes in mineral ores. It can also be extracted from air through liquefaction and separation.
- Krypton is a poor thermal and electrical conductor and has a boiling point of -153.4°C and a melting point of -157.37°C.
- There are five krypton isotopes that are stable with another radioisotope having an extended half-life. Krypton-85 which is a radioactive isotope is used in nuclear reactors and as a tracer gas in atmospheric research.
- Krypton finds use in certain lighting applications since it produces a bright white light when electrically excited. It is also used in certain high-energy gas lasers and in some photographic flash lamps.
Krypton Element – Source: Wikipedia
Krypton – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 54
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 8
- Xenon is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is found in very small amounts in the atmosphere. It is a dense gas, about five times heavier than air.
- It is also non-toxic and nonflammable at standard conditions with a boiling point of -108°C and a melting point of -111°C.
- Xenon is produced through the decay of radioactive elements and many times released during volcanic eruptions. It can be extracted from air through fractional distillation alongside oxygen and nitrogen.
- There are seven known natural isotopes of xenon, with atomic masses 126, 128-132, and 134. The bulk of naturally available xenon comprises xenon-129.
- Xenon has a high ionization energy, requiring significant energy to lose an electron. However, in certain conditions, xenon can combine with other elements to form compounds like xenon tetrafluoride used in chemical synthesis.
- Xenon happens to find use in high-intensity lamps like those used in cinema projectors and lighthouses. It is also used in medical imaging techniques like CT scans and as coolants in nuclear reactors.
Xenon – Source: Live Science
Xenon Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 86
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8
- Radon is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas formed naturally through the decay of radium-226. This typically occurs in mineral ores of uranium and metamorphic and phosphate rocks.
- It can also be produced artificially and is a gas at room temperature and pressure. It is also the heaviest of the noble gases with a density about eight times greater than air.
- Radon is highly toxic and found to cause lung cancer through its decaying radioactive particles. It is has however been found effective in some cases of radiation therapy for cancer.
- It is useful as a tracer in geological and hydrological studies and established as a source of alpha particles for experiments.
Radon – Source: RSC
Radon Element – Source: Britannica
Atomic Number: 118
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8
- Oganesson is a synthetic element, presently the heaviest known element, first synthesized by fusing calcium-48 and californium-249. It is a gas that possesses a colorless, odorless, and tasteless profile at standard temperature and pressure.
- Much is yet to be established about oganesson, thanks to its radioactivity and high instability. It is however, said to have very low melting and boiling points.
- Only one stable isotope of oganesson has been confirmed, Og-294, with a very brief half-life spanning just over a millisecond. Consequently, application of oganesson has been limited to satisfying the curiosity of science and research.
Oganesson – Source: Wikipedia
Oganesson Element – Source: Britannica
Currently, these are the only elements of the periodic table. We will keep updating the list in case of any discovery.
For any questions or inquiry, contact Tuolian Metal now.