Hastelloy B | UNS N10001
Hastelloy B (UNS N10001) is a nickel-molybdenum-based alloy. It is specifically designed for use in high-temperature environments. Hastelloy B is composed of chromium, nickel, and molybdenum elements, contributing to its superior resistance to acidic and alkaline conditions.
Aside from that, Hastelloy B has excellent mechanical strength and formability. Thus, a popular choice for various industrial applications. It’s commonly used in the chemical processing industry, where it’s used to make vessels, piping, valves, and other equipment. The final products surely withstand the harsh conditions of corrosive chemical reactions.
However, Hastelloy B has poor oxidizing resistance. Thus, it is not suitable for applications where ferric or cupric salts existed.
At Tuolian, we supply Hastelloy B in various sizes and forms such as sheet/plate, bar/rod, pipe/tube, and more. All products have complied with the different standard specifications including ASTM, ASME, NACE, ISO, etc.
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|Features||Hastelloy B||Hastelloy C|
|Composition||Contains more nickel (65%)||Contains more chromium (22%)|
|Temperature Resistance||Operable up to 2000°F (1095°C)||Operable up to 1900°F (1035°C)|
|Fabrication||-More accessible to fabricate
– Requires careful consideration and execution
|Machinable and weldable with standard methods|
|Cost||Relatively lower cost compared to other Hastelloy alloys||Higher cost due to added tungsten and nickel content|
A Complete Guide to Hastelloy B: Properties and Applications
For applications requiring strength and ductility, Hastelloy B is among the ideal metal in the Hastelloy alloy family. They contain high amounts of nickel and molybdenum, making them ideal for chemical processes, aerospace, petrochemical industries, pharmaceuticals, and pollution control. This article explores their properties, applications, and benefits in various sectors. Let’s dive in!
What Is Hastelloy B?
Hastelloy B contains nickel and molybdenum as its base elements. This class of alloy is popular for its strength, ductility, and high corrosion resistance—due to the presence of nickel and molybdenum, making them perfect for use in environments with high concentrations of reducing acids, especially industrial areas.
Aside from these two elements, Hastelloy B also contains smaller percentages of chromium, cobalt, iron, and other chemical elements. It is highly resistant to hydrochloric acid, boric acid, sulfuric acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid, aluminum acetate, phosphoric acid, and other acidic solutions at almost all concentrations and temperatures.
Hastelloy B Chemical Composition
The chemical composition of Hastelloy B is one of the many reasons experts from different industries use it as a preferred alloy for various manufacturing processes. Bear in mind these are approximate values of Hastelloy B chemical composition and may vary between manufacturers.
|Element||Chemical Composition (%)|
|Chromium (Cr)||1.0 max|
|Manganese (Mn)||1.0 max|
|Nickel (Ni)||Balance (60.84-66.88)|
Hastelloy B Physical Properties
Density, thermal conductivity, and magnetic permeability are some of the various physical properties of Hastelloy B. The table below shows an overview of these properties, otherwise known as Hastelloy B mechanical properties, and how they occur in the alloy:
|Melting Range||1330-1370°C (2426-2500°F)|
|Specific Heat Capacity||427 J/kgK||20°C|
|Thermal Conductivity||9.9 W/mK||100°C|
|Electrical Conductivity||1.13 MS/m||20°C|
|Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity||207 GPa||At 20°C|
|Co. of Thermal Expansion||12.7μm/mK||20-100°C|
|Tensile Strength ( at Room Temperature)||690-1030 Mpa (110-145 ksi)|
|Yield Strength||345-690 MPa 950-100ksi)|
|Hardness||HRB 70-95 (30 x 106ksi)|
Hastelloy B Impressive Corrosion Resistance
Nickel, molybdenum, and chromium offer excellent resistance to over 50 acids and alkalis, including hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, moist sodium acetate, ferric chloride, potassium oxalate, sodium hydroxide, and other organic acids.
They are present in elevated volumes in Hastelloy alloy B, giving it the desired resistance to corrosive media and making it ideal for machining, welding, and fabrication. Aside from its resistance to acids and alkalis at high temperatures and concentrations, Hastelloy B is immune to salt water and marine environments, including seawater and brine solutions.
Hastelloy B High-Temperature Performance
Aside from corrosive media resistivity, Hastelloy alloy B also has great temperature performance. The alloy can withstand high temperatures of up to 850-1000°F (454-538°C), making it ideal for industrial applications and construction sites requiring elevated temperatures.
As captured above, thermal expansion and conductivity are quite impressive, reflecting why it’s one of the top choices among industry experts.
Hastelloy B Manufacturing Process
The manufacturing process for Hastelloy alloy B starts with preparing raw materials, including nickel, molybdenum, chromium, iron, etc., for the alloy. Once these materials or chemicals have been prepared, the next steps are:
- Alloy Formation: It involves the combination of each of the raw materials in precise amounts to form the alloy. The process that aids this step is called powder metallurgy. Once the manufacturer mixes the powders thoroughly, they’ll be heated to a temperature under their melting point.
- Forming: The Hastelloy must take the manufacturer’s desired shape or length. Therefore, it undergoes forging, rolling, or extrusion after, helping to shape it into Hastelloy B pipes, Hastelloy B plates, Hastelloy B sheets, bars, coils, strips, or tubes.
- Machining: After allowing formation, it must undergo machining processes, including cutting and drilling using steel-cutting tools with optimum speed and coolants to help protect the Hastelloy B from burning and work hardening. This process increases the product’s longevity and quality.
- Heat Treatment: After machining, the alloy must undergo heat treatment to improve its microstructure and flexibility, strength, corrosive resistance, and hardness. To achieve this, manufacturers subject the alloy to heating and cooling cycles in controlled environments.
- Testing and Quality Control Inspections: During manufacturing, producers conduct tests and checks to ensure Hastelloy B is of the highest quality and meets safety standards. At the end of the production process, a final inspection is required to detect and correct defects in the final product.
Once the inspection is complete, the Hastelloy B is packaged and shipped to wholesalers, retailers, and individuals.
Applications of Hastelloy B
Hastelloy B has vast applications in settings that need durability and resistance to strong acids and other corrosive media. Some of these applications include the following:
- Chemical Processing: Due to its high resistance to many acids, including acetic acid and phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrochloric acid, and lactic acid, this class of Hastelloy alloy is widely used in chemical plants handle alkalis, corrosive acids, and highly concentrated acids.
- Petrochemical Industry: Hastelloy B is a popular and essential alloy for all petrochemical processes, including piping, refining, and gas sweetening. Its ability to resist corrosive media makes it useful for ensuring the longevity of pipes, exchangers, valves, and other equipment prone to corrosion.
- Pulp and Paper Industry: Hastelloy B is of great advantage to the pulp and paper industry due to its high corrosion resistance. Manufacturers use this alloy in bleaching, pulping, and other corrosive environments.
- Nuclear Sector: This alloy class is leveraged in the nuclear industry in nuclear reactors since they need to withstand the corrosive effects of nuclear fuel and coolants.
- Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: The health sector is one of the most important industries to humans. Products for medical treatments must be free from contaminants to ensure the well-being of patients. Therefore, Hastelloy B ensures pharmaceutical equipment is not corroded during production.
- Oil and Gas Production: Hastelloy B resists hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur-containing compounds. Therefore its applications extend to oil and gas production equipment, including valves, pumps, and, since they mostly handle highly concentrated fluids like natural gas and crude oil.
- Heat exchangers: A heat exchanger is a channel or device that transfers heat between two fluids while keeping them physically separate. Hastelloy B can withstand severe conditions, including prolonged exposure to hazardous chemicals and high temperatures, hence its application during heat exchanges.
- Desalination plants: Desalination is the process of converting seawater into freshwater by removing the salt content and other impurities. Sea water is corrosive, but since Hastelloy B is resistant to stress and strain from chloride, it is leveraged for evaporators, heat exchangers, valves, and pumps.
- Pollution Control Systems: Air pollution and other forms of pollution have long become a major concern in society. As of 2021, over 67 million tons of pollution were introduced into the atmosphere in the United States. To minimize this, manufacturers go the extra mile in using Hastelloy B to produce stacks and scrubbers and look at other pollution control tools.
- Food Processing Equipment: To ensure food safety and maintain hygiene requirements during heat transfer, Hastelloy B is used in various food processing equipment, such as vessels, tanks, pipes, etc., to ensure maintenance and longevity.
Advantages of Hastelloy B
Some advantages of Hastelloy B include the following:
- Hastelloy B is highly resistant to corrosion and corrosive media
- It is machinable and easy to work with
- Hastelloy B maintenance its impressive mechanical properties even under high temperatures
- It is one of the most versatile classes of alloys, and it can be formed into sheets, pipes, plates, Hastelloy B wires, and bars.
- It is used in industrial processes requiring magnetic reduction and elimination
- It has great weldability, machining, and fabrication
- Hastelloy alloy B is immune to chloride-induced stress.
Limitations of Hastelloy B
Hastelloy B has limitations, including the following:
- While it has incredible features and benefits, Hastelloy B costs a lot of money, making it not suitable for consumers on a low budget. It has a limited market supply that contributes to its expensive price.
- It has good weldability but may not express the same weldability potential when used in thick sections.
- It also has limited compatibility with some chemical elements, including Lead and Zinc.
Pros and Cons of Hastelloy B Table
Hastelloy B has many advantages, positioning it as one of the best ways to reduce environments and chloride-induced stress media. Nevertheless, it has certain limitations, and this table highlights the pros and cons of Hastelloy B.
|Hastelloy B Pros||Hastelloy B Cons|
|Superior resistance to corrosive media and environments||Hastelloy B is expensive|
|Hastelloy B can withstand high temperatures without significantly losing its mechanical properties.||Limited availability|
|It is versatile and can be used to form Hastelloy b sheets, bars, fittings, and tubes||Incompatible with certain elements.|
|It also has low magnetic permeability|
|Immune to chloride-induced environments|
|The level of Hastelloy B machinability and weldability is high.|
Maintenance and Handling of Hastelloy B
As with any equipment, proper maintenance, and careful handling can increase longevity and maintain its quality while ensuring optimum performance at all times and in various conditions. Here are some maintenance guidelines to help you achieve these results:
- Proper Storage: It is advisable to store Hastelloy B in its original packaging and keep it in a dry and clean area, away from prolonged exposure to moisture and other contaminants. If you don’t have the factory seal, find a clean and dry-sealed container, it will prevent surface damage.
- Frequent Cleaning: Use a mild detergent to clean your Hastelloy B materials before use to remove stains, debris, and other contaminants. Do not use abrasive materials on the alloy.
- Avoid Overheating: While Hastelloy B exhibits a high thermal stability level, it is advisable to prevent prolonged exposure to heat to avoid reducing its corrosion resistance.
- Frequent Inspection: Conduct inspections often to identify cracks and other signs of corrosion early.
Comparison Between Hastelloy B, B2, and B3
All metals of the Hastelloy family have many similar characteristics, including Hastelloy B, B2, and B3. However, they have unique features and adoption rates. The table below compares the various grades of Hastelloy B.
|Parameter||Hastelloy B||Hastelloy B2||Hastelloy B3|
|Composition||Hastelloy B contains nickel, molybdenum, iron, chromium, Cobalt, Manganese, Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon.||Hastelloy alloy B2 has less carbon and silicon content.||On the other hand, Hastelloy B3 has smaller amounts of iron and molybdenum.|
|Versatility||High with applications in various industries.||Highly versatile||Highly versatile|
|Corrosion Resistance||Hastelloy alloy B has excellent resistance to various corrosion and reducing environments.||Hastelloy B2 has excellent resistance to corrosion affecting metal boundaries than Hastelloy grade B.||Superior corrosion resistance in reducing environments than Hastelloy B and B2.|
|Thermal Stability||High||High||Exihibits higher thermal stability than Hatelloy B and B2.|
Who Is the Best Hastelloy B Manufacturer
Toulian is the best Hastelloy B manufacturer offering highly efficient materials and top-notch after-sales support. Toulian employs state-of-the-art processes and technologies to ensure the highest quality Hastelloy B products and meet industry quality standards and customer satisfaction.
The company further ensures that all hastelloy B components, including tubes, sheets, plates, rods, and bars, undergo rigorous inspections after production. This helps to meet all relevant quality standards, including ISO, ASTM, ASME, NACE, and other quality and safety regulation associations.
Aside from the manufacturing process, Tuolian offer cutting-edge stainless steel materials to over 100 countries worldwide, and pride in fast delivery and provision of mind-blowing customization options for customers.