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Hastelloy B2 Sheet
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Hastelloy B2 Pipe
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Hastelloy B2 Bar
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Hastelloy B2 Rod
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Hastelloy B2: Is This The Most Functional Nickel Alloy?

Recently, there has been a considerable focus on materials such as alloys, with these materials being especially popular for their ability to easily combine the benefits of multiple compounds and components. 

Over the past few years, Hastelloy b2 has been gaining more traction among manufacturers and metallurgists. Its impeccable physical and chemical properties have made it stand out, with adoption in different industries rising. 

But, understanding the Hastelloy B2 properties and more also takes a lot of insight – especially since it’s not the only Hastelloy variant out there. This article will dive into the material, its uses, and why it is gaining so much prominence. 

A brief overview of Hastelloy B2

Hastelloy B2 is an alloy material that is made by primarily combining nickel and molybdenum. While it has a combination of other possible compounds and elements, the material’s primary content of molybdenum and nickel makes it especially unique. 

Over the years, Hastelloy B2 has become known for its impressive properties –  including and especially its resistance to toxic or reducing environments; such as acids, corrosion, and more. As a member of the Hastelloy family – which includes other materials such as Hastelloy B3 and the likes – Hastelloy B2 is heralded for its corrosion resistance and optimal strength. 

Hastelloy’s properties have made it especially suited for applications such as chemical manufacturing, where it is used in making valves, reactors, heat exchangers, pipes, and more. And while its physical properties do leave a little to be desired (especially compared to some other members of the Hastelloy family), this alloy is one of the most reliable in the market at the moment. 

Composition and Properties of Hastelloy B2

hastelloy b2 formats

Chemical composition of Hastelloy B2

As explained earlier, the fact that Hastelloy B2 is an alloy of nickel and molybdenum doesn’t necessarily mean that the material doesn’t contain other elements. With that in mind, below is a proper breakdown of the Hastelloy B2 composition:

Element  Composition Percentage 
Nickel (Ni) About 65%
Molybdenum (Mo) 28% to 32%, depending on the manufacturer 
Iron (Fe) Approximately 2%
Chromium (Cr)  No more than 1%
Silicon (Si)  No more than 0.1%
Carbon (C)   0.02% at most
Manganese (Mn) Maximum of 0.50%
Cobalt (Co) 1% at most
Sulfur (S) No more than 0.03%
Phosphorus (P) At most, 0.04%

Now, it is worth noting that this combination – as well as the constituent percentages – can easily change based on factors such as the Hastelloy B2 bar manufacturer’s specifications and requirements. The chemical composition of Hastelloy B2 shows that nickel and molybdenum are the two elements that tend to feature the most in Hastelloy B2, but manufacturers can easily add other elements to make the composition more ideal.

Physical Properties of Hastelloy B2

Materials such as Hastelloy B2 can be quite finicky. And, when working with them or using them to complete your tasks, it is important to check if they’re able to easily fit your requirements. To wit, understanding the Hastelloy B2 material properties is critical. 

Generally, Hastelloy B2 has the following properties:

  • Density: The density Hastelloy B2 exhibits currently stands at 9.22 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) – or 0.333 pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³). It is worth noting that the Hastelloy B2 density is quite competitive with other alloys, making it a great choice when the thickness is a major requirement. 
  • Melting Point: The Hastelloy alloy B2 comes with a relatively high melting point, which ranges between 1,330 and 1,350 degrees Celsius – or 2,426 to 2,462 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Thermal Conductivity: This metric for Hastelloy B2 is relatively low. Generally, you can have values ranging between 10 to 14 Watts per meter-Kelvin (W/m·K)
  • Electrical Conductivity: While thermal conductivity for the alloy might be low, electrical conductivity is quite solid. At room temperature, Hastelloy B2 exhibits an electrical conductivity of 19-21% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). 
  • Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion: The overall coefficient of thermal expansion for the Hastelloy B2 alloy is 10.3-11.1 x 10^-6 per degree Celsius (µm/m·K) or 5.7-6.2 x 10^-6 per degree Fahrenheit (µin/in·°F). It is worth noting that this figure stands in the temperature range of 20 to 100 degrees Celsius. 
  • Magnetism: Like many alloys made of nickel, Hastelloy B2 isn’t magnetic – regardless of whether it is in its cold-worked or annealed conditions. 

Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy B2

The next important factor to be considered will be the Hastelloy B2 mechanical properties. Corrosion resistance and strength have already been established as probably the biggest selling points of this material alloy. However, you should also know a few other important factors. 

These include the following:

  • Tensile Strength: For Hastelloy B2, the tensile strength rating usually ranges between 760 to 1,030 megapascals (MPa). This isn’t the strongest material out there, but it definitely ranks as a competitive pick. 
  • Yield Strength: A regular Hastelloy B2 bar will come with a yield strength of 350 to 520 MPa – or between 50,000 and 70,000 psi. Hastelloy B2 needs considerable force before it is deformed, and this is why it is a popular choice for high-pressure product manufacturing. 
  • Ductility: Ductility is another significant area where Hastelloy B2 shines quite well. For the material, you should easily be able to achieve 40% elongation at break. This means that it does quite well with stretching without necessarily losing its form. 
  • Hardness: With a hardness rating in the range of 25 to 35 HRC, Hastelloy B2 also does well in terms of resisting any form of indentation. Of course, remember that the Hastelloy B2 hardness will vary based on the material compositions. 

Thermal Properties of Hastelloy B2

As you probably know already, measuring a material’s thermal properties is critical if you hope to understand how it performs under different temperature situations. Thermal properties are important in determining the best atmospheric conditions to deploy a material, and whether it will be versatile enough to handle change quickly. 

For Hastelloy B2, the following thermal properties are exhibited: 

  • Thermal Conductivity: Thermal or heat conductivity for Hastelloy B2 is relatively low, especially compared to most other alloys. The material exhibits a thermal conductivity of between 0 to 14 Watts per meter-Kelvin (W/m·K), showing that it doesn’t necessarily conduct heat quite well.
  • Specific Heat Capacity: This metric examines how much of external temperature will need to be added to a material to raise its unit mass by exactly one kelvin. For Hastelloy B2, the specific heat capacity clocks in between 419 to 461 Joules per kilogram-Kelvin (J/kg·K).  
  • Coefficient Of Thermal Expansion: The coefficient of thermal expansion measures the change in a material’s unit length based on temperature changes. It is an important metric that helps you to understand how well the material performs in conditions of extreme heat. And, for Hastelloy B2, the metric stands at between 10.3 to 11.1 x 10^-6 per degree Celsius (µm/m·K) or 5.7 to 6.2 x 10^-6 per degree Fahrenheit (µin/in·°F). You should keep in mind that this number applies in the temperature range of 20-100 degrees Celsius. 

Hastelloy B2 Forms & Variants: 

hastelloy b2 bar

One of the many interesting benefits of Hastelloy B2 is the fact that the material comes in different forms and variants. Each tends to have similar properties, but as expected, can be applied in various capacities. 

That said, some of the most popular Hastelloy B2 variants include: 

  • Hastelloy B2 Bars

As the name suggests, a Hastelloy B2 bar is a solid cylindrical or rectangular column made of material. A normal Hastelloy B2 round bar is manufactured through processes such as hot rolling, cold drawing, or automatic machining. And, in a Hastelloy B2 bar factory, it won’t be surprising to see these materials come in different sizes and specifications – all of which can accommodate different functionalities. 

From industries such as petrochemicals to oil and gas and more, Hastelloy B2 bars are useful in situations where resistance to corrosion is required. However, when selecting these materials, it is important to consider factors such as length, diameter, surface finish, and more. Getting in touch with a Hastelloy B2 bar supplier is a great way to get the right consultation needed.  

  • Hastelloy B2 Wires

Thin and elongated, Hastelloy B2 wires are another variant of the material that tends to be quite popular. Known for its temperature resistance, a China Hastelloy B2 wire can come in different diameters – all ranging from incredibly thin wires to thicker, larger gauges. As long as you have your requirements set up, a Hastelloy B2 wire manufacturer should be able to get you what you need. 

All in all, a Hastelloy B2 welding wire is used in multiple industries, especially in cases where durability and corrosion resistance are the top priorities. When choosing a wire, remember to consider factors such as tolerance, diameter, surface finish, and any additional requirements based on what you need. Remember to speak to your wholesale Hastelloy B2 wire supplier to get more clarity.  

  • Hastelloy B2 Sheets

In a Hastelloy B2 sheet, you get a flat, rectangular piece of material made from the alloy. Usually, a Hastelloy B2 sheet manufacturer can easily fashion these materials in the same factories where they create other variants of the alloy.

Used in different industries, a regular China Hastelloy B2 sheet helps in manufacturing items such as chemical reactors and vessels (in the chemical processing industry), flue gas desulfurization systems, and even the production of pulp and paper. 

Selecting a wholesale Hastelloy B2 sheet should come after considering factors such as thickness and overall dimensions. Compare its material with your specifications, and you can speak to a Hastelloy B2 sheet manufacturer for more information.

  • Hastelloy B2 Plates

Plates made of Hastelloy B2 are flat and rectangular, consisting primarily of the alloy – although, in some cases, you could find a China Hastelloy B2 plate being made of other materials just as well.

Hastelloy B2 plates are quite similar to the sheets in that they are typically used almost in the same capacity. Still, you can speak to a Hastelloy B2 plate supplier to find out the ideal functionalities of the product and anything else you’d need to know going forward – from product specifications to properties to be considered and more. 

Applications of Hastelloy B2

b2

Over the years, Hastelloy B2 has become one of the most versatile materials out there. Its functionalities span multiple industries, including the following: 

  • Chemical Processing: In most cases, Hastelloy B2’s biggest use comes in the chemical processing industry. Here, it is used to make vessels, valves, and other equipment that would need to work closely with corrosive materials. And, with impeccable corrosion resistance, the material easily fits.
  • Petrochemical Industry: The material is also quite useful in petrochemical applications. Most experts appreciate its characteristics, using it to process and transport hydrocarbons, sulfuric acid alkylation units, and sour gas environments.
  • Oil and Gas: With corrosion resistance being an important part of the industry, it’s no surprise that Hastelloy B2 is also significantly applied in the oil and gas space. It is used in manufacturing multiple items, ranging from tubes to downhole equipment and more. The material is touted for its ability to protect against corrosive drilling fluids and sour gas environments.
  • Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems: Hastelloy B2 is well-suited for use in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are employed to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from exhaust gases produced by power plants and industrial processes. It exhibits excellent resistance to sulfuric acid, a byproduct of the FGD process.
  • Pharmaceuticals: Hastelloy B2 is utilized in pharmaceutical manufacturing for applications that involve handling corrosive chemicals and processes requiring high purity and clean environments.
  • Pulp and Paper Industry: Hastelloy B2 finds use in the pulp and paper industry, particularly in applications where the processing of corrosive chemicals is involved, such as bleaching processes and the production of chlorine dioxide.

Advantages and Limitations of Hastelloy B2

Advantages of Hastelloy B2

  • Impressive Corrosion Resistance: Perhaps the first thing that comes to mind when you consider Hastelloy B2 is the material’s ability to resist corrosion. The material resists pitting and stress cracking, and it also holds its own against tough chemicals and acids. This makes it especially adept in situations where aggressive or toxic chemicals are appalled. 
  • Optimal Strength: You also can’t discount the strength and durability that this material exhibits. As long as the Hastelloy B2 forging and machining process is done correctly, you can rest assured that it will be able to withstand elevated and high-pressure working conditions. And, with the material’s ability to hold its strength in high temperatures, you can also count on it to display improved mechanical integrity. 
  • Operational Versatility: As we already covered in the previous section, Hastelloy B2 can be used in and across multiple fields. With its physical properties, the material easily works in the fabrication of different materials and components. 
  • Fabrication Ease: Manufacturing and fabricating Hastelloy B2 is a relatively simple process. We’ll be examining the Hastelloy B2 machining process in a later section, but one of the many reasons why it is so valued is that its manufacturing process is pretty easy.

Limitations of Hastelloy B2

  • Limited Oxidation Resistance: Generally, Hastelloy B2 doesn’t quite hold its own against oxidation at high temperatures. As such, manufacturers won’t recommend using the material in oxidizing environments, – such as those containing oxidizing agents like oxygen. For such situations, alternative options such as Hastelloy C22 might be better. 
  • Sensitivity to Contamination: Hastelloy B2 can also exhibit high sensitivity to certain contaminants, particularly in chloride-containing environments. While the introduction of chlorides would make the material corrode, you should be careful with selection and design to help mitigate this risk. 
  • Limited Availability and Cost: Compared to more common stainless steels or nickel alloys, Hastelloy B2 might also not be readily available. And, in cases where it is, the Hastelloy B2 price might be a little too steep. The material’s composition and specialized manufacturing process can lead to a surge in price, meaning that you’d need to be especially careful with sourcing. 

Comparison with Other Hastelloy Alloys

While Hastelloy B2 is one of the most popular Hastelloy variants, it isn’t quite the only one out there. Several other Hastelloy options have also managed to arouse the interest of manufacturers and suppliers over the years, and it is worth examining how Hastelloy B2 stacks up against them.

Comparison of Hastelloy B2 with Hastelloy B3

The fact that both materials are made by combining nickel and molybdenum shows that Hastelloy B2 and B3 are already similar. So, while they exhibit similar properties – from corrosion resistance to impressive strength, here are a few key differences between the two:

Composition:

The first point in the Hastelloy B3 vs B2 comparison is based on their material compositions. 

  • Hastelloy B2: It is a nickel-molybdenum alloy with significant additions of chromium, iron, and tungsten. It has a nickel content of around 65%, molybdenum of around 28-30%, and small amounts of other elements.
  • Hastelloy B3: It is a nickel-molybdenum alloy with higher chromium and iron content compared to Hastelloy B2. It typically contains around 65-70% nickel, 26-30% molybdenum, higher chromium content (1-3%), and elevated levels of iron.

Corrosion Resistance:

As explained earlier, both materials are known for being corrosion-resistant. However, as part of the Hastelloy B2 vs B3 comparison, you should also know that they don’t exhibit the exact same levels.

Corrosion resistance for both materials is actually quite solid. However, we’d have to give the edge to Hastelloy b3 on this front. 

Oxidation Resistance:

Resistance to oxidation is key in determining which of the materials will be best in certain situations. 

  • Hastelloy B2: Limited oxidation resistance means that Hastelloy B2 isn’t necessarily the best option for environments where oxidation is a risk.
  • Hastelloy B3: It exhibits improved oxidation resistance compared to Hastelloy B2, making it more suitable for applications in oxidizing environments or at elevated temperatures.

Applications:

Functionality differences should also play a significant role in determining your choice of material.

  • Hastelloy B2: It is commonly used in chemical processing, petrochemical, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, and pulp and paper industries. It finds applications in equipment such as reactors, vessels, heat exchangers, and components exposed to corrosive chemicals.
  • Hastelloy B3: It is specifically designed for use in highly corrosive sulfuric acid environments, making it suitable for applications such as acid production, acid recovery, and flue gas desulfurization systems.

Availability and Cost:

For budget-conscious users, knowing which material is more affordable should help with making a more informed decision.

  • Hastelloy B2: It is generally more readily available compared to Hastelloy B3 and may have a lower cost.
  • Hastelloy B3: It may have limited availability and can be more expensive compared to Hastelloy B2 due to its specific composition and specialized manufacturing processes.

How Does Hastelloy B2 Hold Against  Hastelloy C276?

hastelloy c276

Another popular Hastelloy option is Hastelloy 276. The material is known for many of the same things you’d expect from Hastelloy alloys, but there are a few lines of divergence in the Hastelloy B2 vs C276 debate too. 

These include: 

Composition:

    • Hastelloy B2: It is a nickel-molybdenum alloy with significant additions of chromium, iron, and tungsten. It has a nickel content of around 65%, molybdenum around 28-30%, and small amounts of other elements.
    • Hastelloy C276: Also a nickel-molybdenum alloy, Hastelloy C276 comes with additional contents of cobalt and tungsten especially. In some cases, you could see tungsten make up about 5% of the material’s entire structure.

Oxidation Resistance:

      • Hastelloy B2: It has limited resistance to oxidation at high temperatures and is not recommended for use in oxidizing environments.
      • Hastelloy C276: On the flip side, you’d find that Hastelloy C276 holds its own quite well against oxidation and oxidizing forces. So, besides its temperature-resistance, this should be an added advantage.

 Applications:

        • Hastelloy B2: It is commonly used in chemical processing, petrochemical, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, and pulp and paper industries. It finds applications in equipment such as reactors, vessels, heat exchangers, and components exposed to corrosive chemicals.
        • Hastelloy C276: Applications for Hastelloy C276 also vary, with industries such as chemical processing and power generation being especially prominent. From manufacturing equipment such as reactors and piping systems, Hastelloy C276 is quite flexible.

Mechanical Properties:

Both materials exhibit impressive mechanical properties – from toughness to ductility and more. So, there’s not much of a basis for comparison here. 

Availability and Cost:
    • Hastelloy B2: It is generally more readily available compared to Hastelloy C276 and may have a lower cost.
    • Hastelloy C276: The material is also quite popular, as we’ve shown based on its applications. However, there’s a probability that it would be more expensive as it goes through a more rigorous manufacturing process across the board.

When choosing between Hastelloy B2 and Hastelloy C276, it’s important to consider the specific corrosive environment, temperature conditions, mechanical requirements, and cost constraints of the application. Consulting with materials engineers or specialists can provide valuable insights for selecting the most suitable alloy.

Manufacturing and Fabrication of Hastelloy B2

The manufacturing process for Hastelloy B2 involves several steps to produce the final alloy in various forms such as bars, wires, sheets, plates, or tubes. While specific details may vary depending on the manufacturer and desired product form, here is a general overview of the manufacturing process for Hastelloy B2:

  • Raw Material Preparation: As you’d expect, the first stage of the entire manufacturing process will be the preparation of the constituent materials that make up this alloy. Here, it is important to ensure that material sourcing is rightly done and that the materials themselves are of the highest quality. 
  • Melting: After the combination, the raw materials are melted within a vacuum induction furnace. Or, in some cases, an electric arc furnace can be used as well. This heating environment helps to ensure proper material forging, leaving out impurities and providing the right conditions to get the ideal material specifications.
  • Casting: The process of metal is aimed at producing a molten material that is eventually placed in a mold. These molds can be in the form of different shapes or variants, depending on your specifications. 
  • Hot Working: The creation of the castings is usually followed by a series of hot working processes. Usually, hot rolling and forging are the most popular options here – the former helps to reduce the material’s thickness and shape it into the variant you need, while the latter uses compression and pressing to create the right dimensions and shapes.
  • Heat Treatment: After hot working, the Hastelloy B2 products undergo a heat treatment process to enhance their mechanical properties and relieve internal stresses. This typically involves heating the material to a specific temperature and holding it for a specified time, followed by controlled cooling.
  • Cold Working (Optional): Depending on the desired product form and properties, cold working processes like cold rolling or drawing may be performed. Cold rolling involves passing the material through a series of rollers at room temperature to achieve the desired dimensions and improve the surface finish. Cold drawing involves pulling the material through a die to reduce its diameter and create wire or tube forms.
  • Finishing and Inspection: The manufactured Hastelloy B2 products undergo various finishing processes such as machining, grinding, polishing, or surface treatments to meet the required specifications. They are then inspected for quality, dimensions, and surface integrity to ensure compliance with the desired standards.
  • Packaging and Delivery: The finished Hastelloy B2 products are packaged and labeled appropriately to protect them during transportation. They are then delivered to customers or stocked for further distribution.

It’s important to note that the specific manufacturing processes and equipment may vary between manufacturers. Advanced production techniques and quality control measures are employed to ensure the production of high-quality Hastelloy B2 products that meet the required specifications and industry standards.

Maintenance and Care for Hastelloy B2

If you decide to make use of Hastelloy B2 in any of your activities, it is important to emphasize the role of proper and effective maintenance. This helps you to extend the material’s shelf life and allows you to get the most out of it as well. 

To that end, here are a few recommended maintenance steps for Hastelloy B2 you should keep in mind:

  • Regular Cleaning: Hastelloy B2 should be cleaned periodically to remove surface contaminants, deposits, or any foreign substances that may compromise its corrosion resistance. Use mild detergents, non-abrasive cleaners, or specific cleaning solutions recommended for the cleaning of nickel alloys. Generally, the application of harsh chemicals should also be avoided as they could have untold negative effects on the surface of the alloy. 
  • Avoid Contamination: Hastelloy B2 is sensitive to certain contaminants, particularly chlorides. Ensure that the alloy is not exposed to chlorides, chlorinated solvents, or chloride-containing environments. Prevent cross-contamination from other metals or alloys that may initiate galvanic corrosion. Use separate tools and equipment dedicated to working with Hastelloy B2 to avoid contamination.
  • Prevent Pitting and Crevice Corrosion: Hastelloy B2 is susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments. Proper design and installation of equipment can help minimize the formation of crevices where corrosion can occur. Avoid stagnant or trapped solutions that can promote localized corrosion. Regular inspections for signs of pitting or crevice corrosion should be conducted, and appropriate measures should be taken if detected.
  • Avoid High-Temperature Oxidation: Hastelloy B2 has limited resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. Avoid exposing it to oxidizing environments or elevated temperatures where oxidation can occur. If high-temperature exposure is unavoidable, consider using alternative alloys with better oxidation resistance, such as Hastelloy C276.
  • Regular Inspection: Conduct regular inspections of Hastelloy B2 components or equipment to identify any signs of corrosion, mechanical damage, or wear. Pay attention to areas prone to stress, such as welds, joints, or areas subjected to mechanical stress. Promptly address any identified issues to prevent further damage or degradation.

Conclusion

Hastelloy B2 is one of the most popular Hastelloy categories. And, with its impressive flexibility in operation, it is one that many manufacturers swear by. 

If you’d like to get your hands on the material or learn more about it, feel free to contact us at Tuolian Metal for a consultation. 

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