Hastelloy C4 | UNS N06455
- High strength
- High precision
- Easy to maintain
- Low carbon content
- Excellent corrosion resistance
- Easily formed, welded, and fabricated
- Resistance to stress corrosion cracking
Hastelloy C4 Manufacturer
Hastelloy C4 also known as UNS N06455 is a nickel-based alloy. It contains a high percentage of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. Also, the alloy has smaller amounts of iron, tungsten, and cobalt. With a combination of elements, N06455 exhibits high-temperature resistance.
Tuolian Hastelloy C4 is well-suited to a range of industrial applications where other materials may fail. Some of its common applications include chemical processing, nuclear fuel processing, wastewater treatment, marine industries, power generation plants, pharmaceutical and food processing equipment, sour gas wells, pulp and paper production, etc.
This alloy can withstand oxidation and scaling at temperatures up to 1900°F (1038°C). In corrosive environments, N06455 can resist harsh chemicals like chlorine-containing media, salt water, solvents, strong acids, chlorides, and more.
These are some of the main ASTM specifications that apply to Hastelloy C4: ASTM B574, ASTM B619, ASTM B575, ASTM B622, and ASTM B626.
At Tuolian, you can find Hastelloy C4 in various forms – strip, sheet, plates, pipe, fine wire, flat, round, and square. It is also available in a range of sizes, diameters, and wall thicknesses; both in standard and customized specifications.
Contact us with your detailed requirements!
Machining – Hastelloy C4 has a low machinability rating. Care must be taken to prevent tool wear and premature failure.
Forming – It can be formed using standard techniques such as rolling, bending, and forging.
Welding – This alloy can be welded using a variety of techniques, including TIG, MIG, and SAW welding.
Heat Treatment – They are typically annealed at temperatures ranging from 1038°C to 1149°C (1900°F to 2100°F) to relieve stress and restore ductility.
Cutting – Hastelloy C4 can be cut using conventional cutting tools, but the use of carbide or high-speed steel tools is recommended for best results. Waterjet cutting is another option.
Ni – 65 Balance
Co – 2 max
Cr – 16
Mo – 14.0 – 17.0
Fe – 3 max
Mn – 1 max
Ti – 0.7 max
Si – 0.08 max
C – 0.01 max
Cu – 0.5 max
Density – 8.89 g/cm3
Melting Point – 1325 – 1370 Degrees Celcius
Tensile Strength – 760MPa
Yield Strength – 365MPa
Elongation – 62%
The World of Hastelloy C4: An In-depth Guide
Welcome to a deep dive into Hastelloy C4. With this guide, a thorough look into the world of this versatile alloy unfolds. From key characteristics to worldwide usage, this exploration covers it all. Expect a deeper understanding of this metal by the end.
What is Hastelloy C4?
Understanding Hastelloy C4
Hastelloy C4 is a super metal. C4’s full name is UNS N06455. In a hard hat, engineers use C4 to make big machines strong.
C4’s family is a nickel alloy clan. Inside, C4 has 16% chromium, 16% molybdenum, and a tiny bit of carbon. C4’s strength goes up to 783 MegaPascals.
That’s strong enough to lift 80 elephants! Also, C4 can be in hot places up to 2000°F. Factories use C4 to make parts that move and bend.
Key Characteristics of Hastelloy C4
- High Durability
- Corrosion, Heat and Oxidation Resistance
- Stress-Corrosion Cracking Resistance
- Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy
- Great Fabricability
- High Melting Point
- Excellent Formability
- Alloy Stability
- Low Carbon Content
- Good Mechanical Properties
- Excellent Toughness
- Superior Thermal Stability
Understanding Hastelloy C4’s Chemical Composition!
|Element||Atomic Number||Atomic Weight||Role in Hastelloy C4||Typical % in Hastelloy C4|
|Nickel (Ni)||28||58.6934||Base metal, imparts corrosion resistance||65-70%|
|Chromium (Cr)||24||51.9961||Enhances oxidation resistance, improves hardness||14-18%|
|Molybdenum (Mo)||42||95.95||Increases strength and hardness, enhances corrosion resistance||14-17%|
|Iron (Fe)||26||55.845||Enhances strength and hardness||Up to 3%|
|Manganese (Mn)||25||54.938045||Removes impurities from the metal||Up to 1%|
|Carbon (C)||6||12.0107||Strengthens the alloy||0.01%|
|Silicon (Si)||14||28.085||Improves oxidation resistance||Up to 0.08%|
|Phosphorus (P)||15||30.973762||Typically considered an impurity in steel||<0.025%|
|Sulfur (S)||16||32.06||Considered as an impurity, too much can cause embrittlement||<0.01%|
|Cobalt (Co)||27||58.933195||Often added to improve high temperature strength||<2%|
|Titanium (Ti)||22||47.867||Enhances corrosion resistance and strength||<0.1%|
|Aluminum (Al)||13||26.9815386||Commonly added for oxidation resistance||<0.5%|
|Copper (Cu)||29||63.546||Enhances corrosion resistance||<0.5%|
|Niobium (Nb)||41||92.90638||Improves strength and toughness||<0.5%|
|Vanadium (V)||23||50.9415||Enhances strength and hardness||<0.35%|
|Tungsten (W)||74||183.84||Enhances strength and hardness||<0.5%|
Table on Hastelloy C4’s Chemical Composition
Physical Properties of Hastelloy C4
Renowned for Hastelloy C4 properties, the metal stands out with a density of 8.64 g/cm3. Such a figure ensures robustness, stability, and withstands stress excellently. The lower the density, the higher the strength-to-weight ratio will be.
The melting point of Hastelloy C4 is notably high, precisely 1350°C. High melting points signify stronger intermolecular bonds.
Thermal conductivity, a crucial parameter for Hastelloy C4, is 11.5 W/m·K at 25°C. Essentially, it describes the rate at which this alloy conducts heat. High thermal conductivity materials quickly distribute heat across their surface.
When focusing on Hastelloy C4, the electrical resistivity stands at 1.15 μohm·m. Thus, it’s not a perfect conductor of electricity. However, given its resistivity, it serves well in many corrosive environments.
Modulus of Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity for Hastelloy C4 is 211 GPa. That’s quite impressive! Such value indicates the stiffness of the material and its ability to endure and return to its original shape after stress.
Coefficient of Expansion
For Hastelloy C4, the coefficient of thermal expansion is 11.0 μm/m°C at 20-100°C. This signifies how much the alloy will expand or contract per degree change in temperature.
Hastelloy C4 shows a magnetic permeability of 1.0003 at 200 oersted (15.9 kA/m). Its low magnetic response proves useful in magnetically sensitive applications.
The specific heat of Hastelloy C4, also known as Hastelloy C4 2.4610, is 427 J/kg·K. In other words, it’s the energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of the material by one degree Kelvin.
Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy C4
- Elongation:Hastelloy C4 has impressive elongation rates. Stretching up to 45%, its malleability sets standards. Accordingly, Hastelloy C4 vs C22 sees C4 triumph in superior deformability. This characteristic lends itself well to intricate, demanding fabrications.
- Hardness:Touted for hardness, Hastelloy C4 reaches up to 217 Brinell. Ranking among tough nickel alloys, it withstands pressure. Contrasted with softer metals, C4’s hardness offers durability.
- Impact Strength:Hastelloy C4’s impact strength is admirable. Withstanding forces of 120 Joules, it resists impacts well. This strength permits use in high-stress applications. Even under harsh conditions, C4 remains unyielding.
- Compressive Strength:Offering high compressive strength, Hastelloy C4 stands firm. Handling loads up to 75000 psi, it resists crushing. Thus, in high-pressure environments, C4 retains form, providing consistent performance.
- Shear Modulus:Regarding shear modulus, Hastelloy C4 scores high. At 77200 psi, it resists shear forces. In essence, when forces act parallel to its surface, C4 holds strong. Consequently, it stands reliable in dynamic scenarios.
- Ductility:Hastelloy C4 possesses excellent ductility. Able to deform without breaking, it exhibits resilience. Hastelloy C4 vs C276 positions C4 as a more ductile option. Therefore, C4’s superior malleability opens diverse application possibilities.
- Tensile Strength:In tensile strength, Hastelloy C4 excels. Handling tensile loads of 79000 psi, it can bear significant strain. Under tensile forces, C4 performs admirably. So, demanding applications find C4 dependable.
- Yield Strength:Hastelloy C4 boasts high yield strength. With 35000 psi, it resists deformation under stress. Thus, C4 maintains shape, allowing for reliable service even under pressure.
- Poisson’s Ratio:Hastelloy C4 exhibits a Poisson’s ratio of 0.32. This signifies C4’s dimensional change under load. While under stress, it ensures structural integrity, providing reliable performance.
Comparison: Hastelloy C4 vs Other Hastelloy Grades
|Hastelloy C4||Hastelloy C22||Hastelloy C276||Hastelloy X||Hastelloy B2||Hastelloy B3||Hastelloy C2000||Hastelloy G30||Hastelloy N|
|High Temperature Resistance||Up to 760°C||Up to 1250°C||Up to 790°C||Up to 1200°C||Up to 1370°C||Up to 1370°C||Up to 1093°C||Up to 982°C||Up to 982°C|
|Tensile Strength (ksi)||100-145||115-200||110-205||100-150||110-178||110-190||95-200||90-150||95-190|
|Yield Strength (ksi)||45-65||55-75||52-70||40-60||50-70||50-70||45-65||40-60||45-65|
|Alloying Elements||Ni, Cr, Mo, Fe||Ni, Cr, Mo, W, Fe||Ni, Cr, Mo, W, Fe||Ni, Cr, Fe, Mo||Ni, Mo, Fe||Ni, Mo, Fe, Cr||Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu||Ni, Cr, Fe, Mo, Cu||Ni, Mo, Cr, Si|
Table on Hastelloy C4 vs. Other Hastelloy Grades
Exploring Hastelloy C4 2.4610
What is Hastelloy C4 2.4610?
Hastelloy C4 2.4610, a high-performing nickel alloy, brings toughness to the table. Hastelloy C4 Singapore suppliers affirm its dominance in harsh conditions. With high chromium and molybdenum content, its capacity to resist corrosion impresses.
Thus, the alloy fits in with chemical processing plants. Moreover, its superior ability to combat pitting, a bothersome corrosion type, stands out.
Indeed, the alloy doesn’t let stress corrosion cracking or hydrogen attack ruin its day. The alloy’s heat resistance – up to 1040°C elevates its reputation.
Features and Significance of Hastelloy C4 2.4610
- High Temperature Resistance
Hastelloy C4 ASTM standards testify to the alloy’s resilience against heat. Its stability even at temperatures exceeding 1000°C makes it a favorite in industrial settings.
- Excellent Formability
Hastelloy C4 beständigkeit shows exceptional formability. Consequently, industries fashion the alloy into varied shapes and sizes.
- Good Weldability
Adding to its prowess, Hastelloy C4 casting is easy, thanks to its excellent weldability. Its flexible nature enables efficient and robust welding.
- Low Carbon Content
With its low carbon content, Hastelloy C4 minimizes grain boundary precipitation. Thus, the alloy maintains its properties even in welded components.
- High Mechanical Strength
Hastelloy C4’s high mechanical strength allows it to withstand heavy-duty applications. This durability grants it a place in power generation industries.
- Excellent Thermal Stability
In the face of temperature changes, Hastelloy C4 stands tall. Its superb thermal stability ensures its structural integrity stays intact.
- Good Oxidation Resistance
The alloy’s nickel-chromium makeup gifts it with outstanding oxidation resistance. So, the alloy effectively battles oxidative stress.
- Long Lifespan
Industry professionals applaud Hastelloy C4’s impressive lifespan. Thus, it provides a cost-effective solution for various applications.
- High Corrosion Resistance
Hastelloy C276 vs C4 comparisons highlight C4’s upper hand in corrosion resistance.
- Superior Toughness
Hastelloy C4’s toughness proves its mettle in challenging conditions. High-pressure industries find the alloy indispensable.
- High Melting Point
Its high melting point further boosts Hastelloy C4’s standing. This trait equips it to endure high-temperature scenarios with grace.
Hastelloy C4: Equivalent Materials and Substitutes
- Inconel 625:A nickel-chromium alloy, Inconel 625 shares similar high-temperature stability with Hastelloy C4 equivalent materials. In service, this alloy can resist temperatures up to 980°C. Despite these similarities, Inconel 625 cannot match C4’s overall performance.
- Incoloy 825:This nickel-iron-chromium alloy boasts commendable corrosion resistance, a trait shared with Hastelloy C4. Especially, Incoloy 825 excels in combating acids and localized corrosion.
- Monel 400:Monel 400 provides impressive strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, for applications demanding superior resistance against reducing and oxidizing environments.
- Duplex 2205:A dual-phase stainless steel, Duplex 2205 showcases outstanding mechanical properties. Although structurally sound, Duplex 2205 lacks the high-temperature endurance found in Hastelloy C4.
- Super Duplex 2507:This alloy’s high chromium and molybdenum content provide excellent Hastelloy C4 corrosion resistance. Despite this, Hastelloy C4’s thermal stability under high-stress conditions remains unchallenged.
- Nickel 200:Pure nickel product Nickel 200 is resistant to many corrosive environments. Hastelloy C4 chemical resistance proves superior for various chemical processing applications.
- Nickel 201:Nickel 201 demonstrates good corrosion resistance. But for overall performance, including superior resistance to a wide range of chemicals, Hastelloy C4 stands out.
- Alloy 20:Known for resisting sulfuric acid, Alloy 20 contains nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. Still, when compared to the broad resistance range of Hastelloy C4, it falls short.
- Inconel 718:Distinguished for its excellent strength and resistance to oxidation, Inconel 718 is used in extreme environments. Yet, for high-temperature corrosion resistance, Hastelloy C4 still wins.
- Inconel 600:While Inconel 600 maintains stability under high temperatures, the versatile Hastelloy C4 hardness and corrosion resistance make it a preferable choice in many applications.
- Monel K500:Offering good corrosion resistance, especially in marine environments, Monel K500 serves as a notable Hastelloy C4 equivalent. However, C4’s robust performance in a broader range of environments overshadows Monel K500.
- Alloy 28:Its high nickel content grants Alloy 28 commendable corrosion resistance. Despite this, when overall durability and high-temperature endurance are considered, Hastelloy C4 is superior.
- Alloy 31:This alloy, with high corrosion resistance, is suitable for handling halide-containing media. Nevertheless, in the face of extreme temperatures and corrosive environments, Hastelloy C4 prevails.
- Titanium Gr.1:Exhibiting excellent corrosion resistance, Titanium Gr.1 can handle various corrosive environments.
Geographical Availability and Usage of Hastelloy C4
Hastelloy C4 in Different Countries
- USA:Manufacturing sectors in the USA rely on Hastelloy C4. In the oil industry, heat exchangers use it for its corrosion resistance.
- Germany:In Germany, Hastelloy C4 is crucial in chemical processing plants. High temperatures and acidic conditions don’t affect the alloy.
- Japan:Power generation plants in Japan utilize Hastelloy C4. Its low thermal expansion is ideal for their operations.
- China:Hastelloy C4 is key in China’s nuclear industry. Radiation exposure doesn’t weaken this tough alloy.
- India:Pharmaceutical production units in India trust Hastelloy C4. It ensures high purity during product manufacturing.
Global Usage Trends of Hastelloy C4
Worldwide, usage of Hastelloy C4 is rising. With industries growing, the need for durable materials increases too. The alloy’s ability to withstand severe conditions makes it popular.
So, from oil and gas to nuclear power plants, Hastelloy C4’s presence is undeniable.
Unaffected by extreme temperatures and corrosive environments, the alloy proves its value time and time again. Therefore, experts predict a surge in Hastelloy C4’s global usage in the years to come.
Chemical Resistance of Hastelloy C4
Understanding Hastelloy C4’s Chemical Resistance
Hastelloy C4, a special metal, shines in battling harsh chemicals. Expert minds made it with nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. In it, nickel counts for 65%, and chromium 16%.
Molybdenum, like a shield, fights against corrosion. Because of top-notch Hastelloy C4 mechanical properties, harsh acids like sulfuric and hydrochloric give up. Industries need no worries when handling tough liquids.
The Haynes Hastelloy C4 takes heat well, keeping strength up to 1,904°F. Even when the going gets tough, Hastelloy C4’s toughness won’t budge.
The special low-carbon makeup dials down any chances of grain boundary precipitation. Keeping corrosion at bay, Hastelloy C4 becomes a hero in harsh environments.
Impact of Chemical Resistance on Hastelloy C4’s Use Cases
In chemical processing, steel pipes falter. Hastelloy C4 does not. Pumps and valves made of Hastelloy C4 stand strong. Corrosive liquids move without fear.
Trash produces mean chemicals. Hastelloy C4 makes treatment tanks and pipes that won’t corrode.
Oil & Gas
For oil and gas, Hastelloy C4 is like a strong friend. Hastelloy C4 bar products endure high pressures. Drill pipes and separators rely on Hastelloy C4. Successful drills mean energy for all.
Flue Gas Desulfurization
Plants with tall smokestacks use Hastelloy C4. It makes smoke cleaner by removing sulfur. Absorbers and ducts made of Hastelloy C4 stand tall.
Pulp & Paper
In making paper, chemicals try to eat away machines. Hastelloy C4 fights back. Paper mills save on costs.
Hastelloy C4 keeps medicines pure. Reactor vessels and heat exchangers say no to corrosion.
Corrosion Resistance of Hastelloy C4
Detailed Look at Hastelloy C4’s Corrosion Resistance
This unique alloy can withstand hostile environments where others fail.
From sulfuric acid, nitric acid, to hydrogen chloride gas, Hastelloy C4 remains sturdy. Exceptionally, Hastelloy C4 can resist up to 1040°C.
With a nickel content of 65%, this alloy is excellent for use in high-temperature environments. Additionally, the Hastelloy C4 price is worth it, considering its durability and extended lifespan.
Role of Corrosion Resistance in Hastelloy C4 Applications
Aboard ships, Hastelloy C4 proves beneficial. Saltwater and humid air are damaging to most materials. With its corrosion resistance, Hastelloy C4 ensures the ship parts remain in top condition for a long time.
· Chemical Industry
You’ll find Hastelloy C4 in chemical plants. Here, corrosive chemicals are common, but Hastelloy C4 handles them with ease. As a result, the industry’s productivity gets a boost.
· Oil & Gas
In the oil and gas industry, Hastelloy C4 is instrumental. Its resistance to sulfur compounds and hydrogen sulfide makes it invaluable. Hastelloy C4 increases the lifespan of oil and gas infrastructure.
Desalination plants highly value Hastelloy C4. The alloy resists seawater’s corrosive nature, providing reliable performance in such environments.
· Pollution Control
For pollution control equipment, Hastelloy C4 is a common choice. The alloy’s ability to resist corrosive gases makes it ideal. Hastelloy C4 welding works best for constructing such equipment.
Exploring Hastelloy C4’s Hardness
Analysis of Hastelloy C4 Hardness
Hastelloy C4 is renowned for its hardness. With a Rockwell hardness score of B90, it’s tough. Still, it retains flexibility. High hardness means great strength, and that’s what Hastelloy C4 provides. In stress tests, it excels, proving its rugged nature.
Resistance to heat and corrosion add to its attributes. Extreme conditions cannot degrade its hardness. Hastelloy C4 maintains hardness even at 1000°F.
The Role of Hardness in Determining Hastelloy C4’s Applications
Hastelloy C4’s hardness makes it perfect for mining tools. Able to resist wear and tear, its endurance is matchless. High-pressure conditions and harsh climates cannot mar its functionality.
With strength and durability, Hastelloy C4 is the choice for construction. As reinforcement in concrete or girders in skyscrapers, its role is pivotal.
Jet engines need the best materials. Hastelloy C4, with its heat resistance and hardness, fits right in. Withstanding high velocities and temperatures, its role is undeniable.
Engine blocks, pistons, and exhausts need resilience. Hastelloy C4, tough and hard, suits the bill. It ensures longevity, reducing maintenance costs.
In factories, machinery needs to last. Hastelloy C4 is the solution. With its hardness and resistance, it is a trusted choice for industrial components.
Fabrication and Machining of Hastelloy C4
Casting of Hastelloy C4
Making Hastelloy C4 involves casting. Manufacturers melt the alloy at high temperatures above 1350°C. Next, they pour the molten metal into a mold.
The metal solidifies and takes the shape of the mold. Then, the cooled part is removed. These steps make Hastelloy C4 perfect for different shapes.
Cutting and Machining Techniques
· Laser Cutting
Laser cutting Hastelloy C4 is precise. The laser, a high-intensity light, cuts through the metal. This method can cut parts less than 0.2” thick. It leaves a smooth finish, which reduces the need for additional work.
· Waterjet Cutting
Waterjet cutting is another method. A high-pressure water stream cuts the Hastelloy C4. This method is good for thicker parts, up to 2”.
· Plasma Cutting
Plasma cutting Hastelloy C4 uses a hot plasma jet. The plasma melts the metal and blows the molten metal away. It’s good for thick Hastelloy C4 parts.
Turning Hastelloy C4 uses a lathe. The lathe spins the metal while a tool shapes it. This process makes cylindrical parts.
Milling Hastelloy C4 involves a rotating cutter. The cutter removes metal, shaping the part. This process can make complex shapes.
Drilling creates holes in Hastelloy C4. A drill bit spins, cutting into the metal. This method can make holes of different sizes.
Grinding refines Hastelloy C4 surfaces. A grinding wheel removes small amounts of metal. It leaves a smooth finish.
Punching Hastelloy C4 makes holes. A punch presses into the metal, creating a hole. The size of the punch decides the size of the hole.
Bending shapes Hastelloy C4. Force is applied to the metal, causing it to bend. The bend’s angle can be controlled.
Hastelloy C4: Welding Procedures and Guidelines
How to Weld Hastelloy C4?
- Material Preparation: Prepare Hastelloy C4 for welding by first cleaning the surface. Removal of dirt, oils, and impurities ensures a clean, efficient weld.
Degreasing solvents serve well for this purpose. Oxide layers or corrosion spots, if present, require mechanical scrubbing.
After cleaning, remember to properly store Hastelloy C4 in a dust-free area. Covering with a protective wrap can help.
- Choosing Welding Method: In selecting a suitable welding method for Hastelloy C4, consider the nature of the project. For thin Hastelloy C4 sheets, opt for TIG welding.
Conversely, MIG welding fits thicker sections. Shielding gas choice remains crucial. Pure argon or argon-helium mixes often give the best results.
- Pre-Heating: Unlike some metals, pre-heating Hastelloy C4 is unnecessary. In fact, the process could cause unwanted carbon migration.
Stick with room temperature, ensuring the metal remains below 200°F. With Hastelloy C4, room temperature welding reduces the risk of hot cracking.
- Welding: During the welding process, maintaining a short arc length enhances control. Adjust current and voltage for optimal bead size and shape.
Note that Hastelloy C4 has a faster cooling rate than most stainless steels. Continuous welding can lead to heat accumulation, potentially causing warping or distortion.
- Post-Weld Heat Treatment: Hastelloy C4 doesn’t require post-weld heat treatment under normal circumstances. The alloy retains good ductility and toughness even after welding. This characteristic simplifies the overall welding process, saving time and effort.
- Inspection:Inspection ensures the integrity of Hastelloy C4 welds. Visual inspection suffices for surface irregularities. For deep-seated defects, apply non-destructive testing methods. Ultrasonic testing, radiographic inspection, or dye penetrant testing work best in these situations. A well-executed weld should show uniform bead width, proper penetration, and a lack of voids or cracks.
Welding Considerations for Hastelloy C4
When welding Hastelloy C4, focus on technique. Carefully control heat and shield gas flow. Hastelloy C4’s thick structure benefits from a steady arc. The welding speed should be balanced, too fast can cause undercuts, and too slow can lead to overheating.
Opt for a Hastelloy C4 filler material. Match the alloy content to ensure good weld quality. The filler rod should be 2.4mm or 3.2mm, depending on the joint design. Proper storage of filler material is crucial to avoid moisture pickup.
Control of heat input is key with Hastelloy C4. Use low heat input to minimize the grain size. The heat input should fall between 0.5 to 2.5 KJ/mm. This range helps prevent hot cracking.
The Interpass temperature for Hastelloy C4 should not exceed 150°C. Higher temperatures can lead to grain coarsening and reduced corrosion resistance. A controlled environment ensures a more predictable weld.
Control distortion by evenly distributing heat. Use a back-step welding sequence for long joints. Remember to tack weld at regular intervals. Proper jigging can also aid in preventing distortion.
Safety is crucial when handling Hastelloy C4. Use proper eye protection, such as a welding helmet with correct shade number. Gloves, fire-resistant clothing, and proper ventilation are also necessary.
Watch for common defects when welding Hastelloy C4. Porosity, hot cracks, and incomplete fusion can occur. Regular inspection after each welding pass helps to detect and correct defects early.
Post-Weld Cleaning Clean
Hastelloy C4 welds properly. Use stainless steel brushes, and avoid contaminated tools. Proper cleaning enhances corrosion resistance and promotes adhesion of surface treatments.
Market Pricing of Hastelloy C4
Current Market Price of Hastelloy C4
Hastelloy C4, a super-alloy, commands high market value. Current pricing ranges from $50-60 per kilogram. Prices fluctuate based on factors such as nickel prices, production costs, and more.
Factors Affecting the Price of Hastelloy C4
- Nickel Prices: Nickel constitutes a significant portion of Hastelloy C4. The rise in nickel prices directly impacts the cost of Hastelloy C4.
- Production Costs: The cost of power, labor, and raw materials used in manufacturing Hastelloy C4 plays a crucial role in pricing.
- Demand & Supply: Hastelloy C4 sees high demand in industries like aerospace. An increase in demand leads to price hikes.
- Currency Exchange Rates: Global trade of Hastelloy C4 means currency rates affect the final cost. A weaker dollar means higher prices.
- Trade Policies: Tariffs and export-import policies can change Hastelloy C4 prices. Strict policies mean higher prices.
- Global Economy: Economic stability positively affects Hastelloy C4 prices. In stable economies, prices remain steady.
- Manufacturing Technology: Advances in manufacturing technology can lower production costs, thereby reducing the price of Hastelloy C4.
- Quality Standards: Adherence to international quality standards can also influence the pricing of Hastelloy C4. Higher standards often result in increased prices.
Throughout this guide, Hastelloy C4 has been unraveled, illuminating its strength, durability, and unique properties. With vast usage across various industries, it stands as a testament to robust engineering.
For top-quality Hastelloy C4, consider TuolianMetal, a trusted name in the industry. Remember, quality matters in the long run.