Stainless steel (SS) is a well-known and versatile material used across various industries. It displays considerable durability, stability, and aesthetic appeal, making it a top choice for many manufacturers and designers. One particular type of stainless steel is AISI 410.
This steel is martensitic and commonly used in various industrial applications. It is a material popular for its strength, hardness, and resistance to wear and tear, making it suitable for environments with high temperatures and harsh conditions.
Understanding the characteristics and properties of AISI 410 material can help manufacturers and designers choose the right type of stainless steel for their products.
Chemical Properties of AISI 410 SS
The AISI 410 SS contains high amounts of chromium and carbon. This particular grade of stainless steel also contains manganese, phosphorous, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The most prominent characteristics of this steel, such as hardness, corrosion resistance, and durability, are a direct product of its chemical composition.
The chemical components of stainless steel AISI 410 alongside iron are as follows:
- Carbon (C): 0.15%.
- Chromium (Cr): 11.5 – 13.5%.
- Manganese (Mn): 1%.
- Phosphorus (P): 0.04%.
- Sulfur (S): 0.03%.
- Silicon (Si): 1%.
Let’s discuss the characteristics these elements impart to AISI 410.
- Carbon provides strength to steel and improves its hardness.
- Chromium is the main alloying element here, and it provides stability against corrosion and wear and tear.
- Manganese makes it stronger and more ductile.
- Phosphorus and sulfur are impurities that must be controlled to prevent brittleness.
- Silicon helps in the deoxidization of the steel during the steelmaking process.
The chemical composition of this stainless steel can be adjusted by altering the levels of each element to obtain specific properties. For example, increasing the carbon content can increase the hardness and strength, but it may also reduce the flexibility and toughness of the steel.
Physical Properties of AISI 410 SS
The chemical composition discussed above gives this material its high density, strength, low thermal conductivity, and exceptional corrosion resistance. These properties make this material an ideal candidate for use in kitchen knives, screws, and valves. Here are the details.
The density of this material is around 7.7 g/cm³ at room temperature, which is relatively high compared to other stainless steel grades.
In contrast, the density of austenitic stainless steel grades like AISI 304 and AISI 316 is around 7.9 g/cm³.
2. Thermal Conductivity
AISI 410’s thermal conductivity is lower than other metals, with a value of 25 W/mK around room temperature.
The low thermal conductivity of this substance makes it less suitable for applications where controlling heat transfer is a primary requirement. You can compare it to copper’s 400 W/mK, and aluminum’s 200 W/mK.
3. Electrical Resistivity
This stainless steel has a moderate electrical resistivity of about 5.7×10^-7 Ωm at room temperature. This is lower than copper and aluminum but higher than other stainless steel grades, such as AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steel.
For example, the electrical conductivity of AISI 304 is about 1.45×10^-6 Ωm, while that of AISI 316 is around 1.25×10^-6 Ωm.
4. Corrosion Resistance
Stainless steel AISI 410 is martensitic stainless steel with good stability against corrosive forces in mild environments. It has a higher corrosion resistance than other martensitic stainless steels, such as AISI 420 and AISI 431, but lower than austenitic stainless steels, such as AISI 304 and AISI 316.
Mechanical Properties of AISI 410 Stainless Steel
Compared to other stainless steel grades, such as austenitic stainless steels, AISI 410 has a lower corrosion resistance but higher hardness. Its reduced ductility and low elongation limit its use in applications with critical impact or stress resistance.
You can use AISI 410 if you require high hardness and wear resistance, such as in cutlery, surgical instruments, and industrial equipment parts. Let’s discuss its mechanical properties.
1. Hardness and Toughness
This grade of stainless steel is strong with good wear resistance. Its hardness is typically 40-50 HRC, higher than other stainless steel grades. For example, the hardness of AISI 304 and AISI 316 is typically in the range of 70-90 HRB, which is lower than that of AISI 410.
However, this hardness makes this steel less tough – brittle. SS AISI 410 is brittle and may crack or fracture under impact or stress, unlike more ductile stainless steel grades like AISI 304 and AISI 316.
2. Tensile Strength, Yield Strength, and Elongation
The tensile strength of this material is around 480 MPa, and its yield strength is about 275 MPa. AISI 410’s elongation is relatively low, typically around 20%. This is due to the steel’s high hardness and reduced ductility.
For comparison, the tensile strength of AISI 304 and AISI 316 is around 515-620 MPa, while their yield strength is around 205-415 MPa. The elongation of these materials is much higher, typically around 40-60%.
Uses of AISI 410 Stainless Steel
Using this stainless steel in industrial, construction, and household applications provides excellent benefits such as high strength, hardness, wear, corrosion, and fire resistance. Applications include:
1. Industrial Applications
This stainless steel is widely used in the manufacturing industry to manufacture parts and components for various equipment, including pumps, valves, turbines, and compressors.
Due to its high hardness and wear resistance, it is commonly used to manufacture cutting tools, machine parts, and dies. The high strength and resistance to corrosion and oxidation make AISI 410 optimal for industrial applications that need to be durable and resistant to wear and tear.
Its unique properties make it particularly suitable for use in the oil and gas industry. For instance, it manufactures parts and components for offshore drilling equipment, such as drill bits, casing, and tubing. Stainless steel AISI 410 is also used to produce gas turbines and aircraft engines due to its high strength and corrosion resistance.
2. Household Applications
Stainless steel AISI 410 is commonly used in various household applications such as kitchen utensils, cookware, cutlery, and appliances. Additionally, it is also used in washers, springs, and screws in household appliances.
3. Construction Applications
Stainless steel AISI 410 makes structural components and fittings in this industry. For instance, it makes reinforcing bars, fasteners, and bolts due to its strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance.
It is also used to construct buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure due to its excellent fire resistance and thermal conductivity. Additionally, AISI 410 is also used to construct oil rigs and gas pipelines, where resistance to corrosion, high strength, and durability are critical.
AISI 410 vs. AISI 304
Stainless steel AISI 410 and AISI 304 stainless steel are two popular and widely used grades. Let’s discuss their differences:
1. Chemical Composition
- Stainless steel AISI 410 is martensitic and contains 11.5% to 13.5% chromium.
- AISI 304 is austenitic and contains 18% to 20% chromium and 8% to 10.5% nickel.
|AISI 410||AISI 304|
|Higher density.||Lower density.|
|Higher thermal conductivity.||Lower thermal conductivity.|
|Higher electrical conductivity.||Lower electrical conductivity.|
|Lower corrosion resistance.||Higher corrosion resistance.|
|More brittle.||Less brittle.|
|Higher tensile strength.||Lower tensile strength.|
|Higher yield strength.||Lower yield strength.|
|Less ductile.||More ductile.|
AISI 410 SS is commonly used in the following:
- Industrial applications: manufacturing equipment, machine parts, and cutting tools.
- Construction applications: reinforcing bars and fasteners
- Household applications: to make kitchenware, cutlery, and appliances.
On the other hand, AISI 304 SS is commonly used in:
- Applications that require high stability against corrosive forces, such as food manufacturing machines, chemical processing equipment, and medical instruments and devices.
- Architectural applications: building facades, handrails, and elevators.
- Household applications: kitchenware, sinks, and appliances.
Machining Methods for AIS 410 SS
Machining stainless steel AISI 410 is complex material because of its hardness – you have to use the right tools and techniques. Some standard machining methods used for stainless steel AISI 410 are:
- Grinding: This process removes material from the surface of the material.
- Cutting: You can cut AISI 410 with high-speed steel or carbide-cutting tools for optimal results.
- Drilling: You use high-speed steel drills with a large helix angle and a low point angle to drill AISI 410.
- Turning: You can use this technique to remove material from the surface of AISI 410 stainless steel. Try carbide-tipped tools for optimal results.
- Milling: This process also removes material from the surface of AISI 410 stainless steel. Carbide-tipped cutters with a high number of teeth are recommended for optimal results.
It is essential to use the appropriate cutting fluids to machine AISI 410 to prevent the material from overheating and losing its strength. Ensure the use of safety equipment to prevent injuries during machining.
AISI 410 is a high-strength, corrosion-resistant material that can be applied in various industrial, construction, and household settings. It is a reliable choice for demanding applications that require strength, durability, and stability against variour forces.
However, it is essential to note that AISI 410 SS is complex to machine and requires appropriate tools and techniques to achieve optimal results. If you want to invest in stainless steel products like tubes, sheets, and rods, please contact us to send your inquiry today.
1. What are the properties of AISI steel?
AISI 410 SS has the following notable properties.
- High: corrosion resistance, hardness, tensile strength, yield strength.
- Moderate: thermal conductivity.
- Low: machinability, electric conductivity.
- Magnetic: Yes.
2. How does stainless steel AISI 410 compare with other grades?
Here is a brief comparison:
1. AISI 410 vs. AISI 316: AISI 316 stainless steel is highly corrosion-resistant and a molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel.
Compared to AISI 410 stainless steel, AISI 316 stainless steel is not as hard but has better corrosion resistance, especially in high chloride environments. AISI 316 stainless steel is relatively pricier.
2. AISI 410 vs. AISI 304: AISI 304 stainless steel is austenitic. It also has higher percentage levels of chromium and nickel. So, compared to AISI 410 stainless steel, AISI 304 stainless steel has better corrosion resistance, but it is not as hard and cannot be heat treated for higher strength.
3. AISI 410 vs. AISI 420: AISI 420 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel that is similar to stainless steel AISI 410 but with a higher carbon content, which gives it better hardness and wear resistance.
However, AISI 420 stainless steel has lower corrosion resistance than AISI 410 stainless steel.