Material science has progressed significantly since the innovations in alloys. Alloys are physical mixtures of two or more elements, such as brass, a mixture of copper and zinc. Mixing metals like this creates a new material with the properties of all its components.
A common alloyed material is stainless steel – a mixture of iron and several other elements. Read on to find out more about stainless steel alloys.
What’s In Stainless Steel?
Steel is an alloy of iron, and in order to be considered stainless, it must have at least 10.5% of chromium.
The composition of stainless steel alloys differs depending on the grade: each can have varying amounts of iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, copper, and other similar elements. Every grade has its unique applications.
Adding more than 10.5% chromium creates a passive oxide layer on the steel’s surface. This makes it incredibly resistant to rust and corrosion. Other steels, like carbon steels, aren’t as corrosion-resistant. Stainless steel is also generally non-magnetic and more durable.
Its main types include:
- Austenitic: This is the most commonly used type with high chromium and nickel composition. It is non-magnetic and very resistant to corrosive forces.
- Ferritic: This is a cost-effective version of stainless steel with low carbon and lower chromium than austenitic stainless steel. It is magnetic, although less durable.
- Martensitic: This steel is known for its hardness and strength – you use it where you require durability. However, it is not very machinable and is brittle.
- Duplex: This type combines austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, getting high corrosion resistance and strength.
- Precipitation-Hardened Stainless Steel: These steels are strengthened by heat treatment.
Different Ways to Alloy Stainless Steels
Every distinct type of stainless steel with a specific composition is an individual grade. And closely linked grades comprise a stainless steel series.
The SAE grading system is the most commonly used steel grading system. In SAE grading, we assign a three-letter code to each grade for identification, and the first letter represents the series. For example, grade 304 belongs to series 300.
There are 6 standard stainless steel series:
- Series 100 stainless steel is less commonly used. Grades of series 100 are generally austenitic stainless steel.
- Series 200 is austenitic or duplex. These grades are chromium-nickel-manganese alloys and may also contain nitrogen that hardens them. They have good formability and are more elastic than series 300 but are less corrosion resistant.
- Series 300 stainless steel is also austenitic or duplex stainless steel. It has higher nickel levels and lower manganese levels than series 200 and is considerably resistant to corrosive forces as compared to other series.
- Series 400 includes both ferritic and martensitic stainless steel that generally have a higher chromium content, but they are less resistant to corrosive forces than series 300.
- Series 500 stainless steel is generally martensitic. They are heat-resistant chromium alloys, and you use them where you require high temperatures.
- Series 600 is precipitation-hardened stainless steel and contains chromium, nickel, and copper. You can heat-treat it to get high strength.
Testing and Standards of Stainless Steels
Several organizations strictly test and regulate stainless steel to standardize it. Some typical standard specifications include:
The American Society for Testing and Materials standardizes stainless steel with specifications like:
- ASTM A240:. This lays out standards for stainless steel plates and sheets of chromium or chromium-nickel composition.
- ASTM A312:. This is a standard specification for austenitic stainless steel cold-worked pipes.
- ASTM A479:. This standardizes stainless steel bars for pressure vessels and boilers.
The International Organization for Standardization standardizes materials for various industries, including stainless steel. For instance, the ISO 3651-2 standard specifies standards for intergranular corrosion testing of different stainless steel types, particularly in sulfuring acid environments. This test is essential to determine the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers develops standards for mechanical systems. It has developed standards for using stainless steel in mechanical systems like pressure vessels. For instance, ASME SA240 is a standard that specifies what kind of chromium and chromium-nickel alloys you can use in pressure vessels.
Comparison of Stainless Steels with other Materials.
You can use different materials instead of stainless steel in the industry. Here’s how it compares to its competitors:
1. Carbon Steel
Carbon steels are alloys of iron with carbon. They have little to no chromium or nickel but may have some manganese content. You commonly use this material in construction, manufacturing, and industrial applications.
Carbon steel is less pricey than stainless steel but is strong and hard. However, it has less corrosion resistance, ductility, and tensile strength than stainless steel and is brittle.
Aluminum is a lightweight metal, but it is very durable and commonly used in the aerospace and construction industries.
Aluminum is more ductile and formable than stainless steel. Yet, it has a lower tensile strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance.
Titanium is a strong and lightweight material you often find in aerospace and medical applications. It is a biocompatible material with a high strength-to-weight ratio.
It is pricier than stainless steel and has less machinability and ductility. However, its tensile strength is more than that of stainless steel.
Production of Stainless Steel Alloys.
You can produce stainless steel by many methods, but the general principle is the same. You melt the constituent elements, remove impurities, and cast them into stainless steel.
Some standard methods include:
- Electric Arc Furnace (EAF): In this method, you melt the constituent metals in an electric furnace and combine them to produce stainless steel.
- Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF): Here, you melt iron ore in a basic oxygen furnace. A BOF blows oxygen through molten iron to remove impurities and converts it into steel.
- Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM): In the VIM method, you melt the ores in a vacuum and then combine the molten metals in a steel ingot.
- Powder Metallurgy (PM): In the powder metallurgy method, you mix elemental powders in the desired composition instead of molten ores. You then press the mixture in the desired shape.
Advantages of Stainless Steel Alloys
Stainless steel has several advantages, such as:
- Resistance to corrosion: Stainless steel comprises chromium, creating a passive oxide layer at the steel’s surface. This layer protects them from corrosion.
- Durability: Stainless steel contains durable metals like nickel and manganese, ensuring stainless steel lasts long. It can withstand high temperatures, pressure, and harsh environments.
- Heat resistance: Most grades of stainless steel won’t get damaged even at temperatures higher than 1000 degrees Celsius. This is why aerospace components are often made of stainless steel alloys – they need to retain structural integrity at high ignition temperatures.
- Low maintenance: You don’t need to provide too much maintenance for stainless steel as it is resistant to corrosion and stains. Cutlery and kitchen utensils made of stainless steel require only cleaning with soap and warm water.
- Hygienic properties: Stainless steel doesn’t rust, and you can easily clean it. It is also biocompatible. Due to its hygienic properties, the applications of stainless steel alloys in the medical industry are numerous.
- Aesthetics: This material has a sleek and modern look. Polished stainless steel is lustrous and shiny – it can add a modern aesthetic to your workplace.
Disadvantages of Stainless Steel Alloys.
Despite its many benefits, stainless steel alloys have some limitations:
- Cost: Stainless steel is significantly more expensive than its alternatives, like carbon steel. Its constituent elements are more expensive, raising its cost.
- Difficulty in fabrication and welding: Stainless steel is less machinable and weldable than alternatives. You require pre and post-weld treatments and advanced fabrication methods for stainless steel.
- Magnetism: The magnetism of stainless steel alloys is a disadvantage in electronic applications.
- Limited color options: Stainless steel has a silver, sleek look but offers limited color diversity. You can temper steel for new aesthetics and design trends in stainless steel alloys, but you mostly have shades of silver and gray.
- Potential for pitting corrosion: Pitting corrosion is localized corrosion in which pits or holes are formed on the surface. Pitting corrosion in stainless steel is possible in a chloride-rich, high-salt environment.
Selecting the Right Stainless Steel Alloy.
With so many alloys in the market, choosing the right one can be tricky. Here are some factors to consider when finalizing a stainless steel alloy for your intended use:
- Properties: The physical and chemical properties of an alloy, like corrosion resistance, density, and tensile strength, determine if it is suitable for your application. For example, marine applications require a grade with good pitting corrosion resistance. An aerospace application will require lightweight but durable steel.
- Expenses: Some stainless steel alloys are more expensive than others. So, if you are a small industry, keep your budget in mind.
- Sustainability: It’s important to consider the environmental impact of the alloys you’re shortlisting, including their production methods and recycling. Choose recyclable stainless steel varieties with a lower carbon footprint.
- Availability: Not all stainless steel grades are always available in the market. Check which grades you can easily purchase before deciding on your preferred alloy.
Cleaning and Care Tips for Maintaining Stainless Steel Alloys.
Proper maintenance will add to your stainless steel’s life. You need to clean and store your stainless steel appropriately.
You just need warm water, mild soap, and a soft cloth for cleaning. Don’t use abrasive cleaners, as they can damage your alloy’s surface finish. Use vinegar in case of persistent stains.
You can also protect your stainless steel by getting a protective coating through passivation. Store it in a dry environment with a low chloride concentration to avoid pitting corrosion. If rust ever develops, use a specialized rust remover and dry the surface afterward.
Recycling Stainless Steel Alloys for Environmental Sustainability.
Stainless steel is a sustainable, recyclable material of up to 90%. Here’s why you should consider recycling your stainless steel waste:
- You conserve natural resources and reduce the mining of stainless steel’s constituent elements. By doing this, you ensure the sustainable use of resources.
- Recycling uses less energy than producing stainless steel from scratch. So it is a more energy-efficient method of producing stainless steel.
- It saves costs as it uses less energy, allowing cheap stainless steel manufacture.
- Recycling stainless steel reduces steel waste and reduces content in landfills.
Future of Stainless Steel Alloys
The science of stainless steel alloys is progressing daily, and the future is bright. You can see new alloys with unique compositions made daily, which have unique properties like improved strength and corrosion resistance. In the future, you will also be able to use advancements like 3D printing, additive manufacturing, machine learning, and AI in the manufacturing process.
There are many new designs and aesthetic trends in the stainless steel industry. You can use brushed and polished surfaces to create texture and depth. Work is also being done on integrating steel with glass and wood to create contrasting textures in applications.
Stainless steel is mainly an alloy of iron, chromium, nickel, and several other materials; it is durable, stronger, and more corrosion-resistant than its alternatives, like carbon steel. Different organizations, like ASTM, ISO, and ASME, standardize the composition and properties of stainless steel for different applications.
This material is resistant to corrosion and heat, but it can be expensive and magnetic. Proper maintenance can increase stainless steel’s life. Stainless steel is also sustainable material with a bright future.
If you’re looking for stainless steel alloys, don’t hesitate to contact us today.
Frequently Asked Questions.
1.Can stainless steel rust?
Stainless steel resists rust, but improper maintenance can cause it to rust. Harsh chemicals, saltwater, and high humidity increase the chances of your stainless steel product rusting. Store your steel in a dry place, and it will likely not rust.
2.Are all stainless steel alloys non-magnetic?
No, all stainless steel alloys are not non-magnetic. The magnetic properties depend upon the alloy’s chemical composition. Austenitic steel is rarely ever magnetic. However, many ferritic and martensitic stainless steel grades show magnetism. Although, stainless steel generally isn’t magnetic when compared to carbon steel.
3.How can I identify the type of stainless steel alloy I have?
Check for any markings or labels of your grade on your steel. You can also use a magnet to determine your alloy’s type. If it shows a response to the magnet, it may be ferritic or martensitic; otherwise, it’s austenitic. You can also perform a spark test, and the colors of the spark can suggest the alloy composition. For example, austenitic steel produces longer, silver sparks, but ferritic steel produces shorter, reddish sparks. However, be very careful when conducting a spark test.