Stainless is used in many industries to manufacture and construct different equipment. However, there are claims that bronze is as strong and softer as steel. In this article, we will examine these metals in terms of performance to help you decide the best one for your manufacturing projects.
What are the compositions and properties?
To help you know which material to choose, here are the compositions and properties of each material:
Stainless steel is primarily made from iron. During its two-step process, alloying elements such as chromium, silicon, carbon, nickel, and nitrogen are combined with iron alloy to create corrosion-resistant steel. There are various types of stainless steel, including:
Austenitic Stainless Steel
Austenitic stainless steel is the most common type of steel. It has high ductility and excellent corrosion resistance. It also contains high levels of nickel ( 6-22%) and chromium (16-26%). Austenitic stainless steel is non-magnetic, making it perfect for parts like stainless steel coils. These are used in kitchen appliances and food processing equipment. It is also useful for creating stainless steel rods that are corrosion-resistant and can hold objects together.
Martensitic Stainless Steel
Martensitic stainless steel is famous for its strength and hardness, making it perfect for projects that need wear resistance. It has a higher carbon content than other types of stainless steel. However, it has lower corrosion resistance. Martensitic stainless steel is commonly used in manufacturing cutlery and tools.
Ferritic Stainless Steel
Ferritic Stainless steel has excellent magnetic properties and lower chromium content (10-27%). It is resistant to corrosion but also has lower toughness compared to austenitic stainless steel. Ferritic stainless steel is regularly used for decorative trim and exhaust systems in automotive applications.
The mechanical properties of stainless steel include:
- Corrosion: Stainless steel forms an oxide layer on its surface when exposed to air or moisture. This provides a protective barrier against many forms of corrosion. However, stainless steel can corrode under certain conditions depending on various factors. This includes the composition of alloys and environmental conditions.
- Strength: The strength of stainless steel depends on the specific alloy composition and heat treatment. Additionally, different types of stainless steel have varying levels. The common types of strength associated with stainless steel include tensile, impact, fatigue, and yield.
- Resistance: Stainless steel has excellent resistance to multiple types of chemical and environmental degradation. However, the resistance level will depend on the alloy composition, heat treatment, and environmental conditions.
The physical properties of stainless steel include the following:
- Density: The density of stainless steel can vary based on the alloy composition. However, it generally falls within 7.7 to 8.0 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm^3).
- Melting point: The melting point of stainless steel varies depending on the specific alloy composition. That said, it usually falls between 1370 to 1520 degrees Celsius. This is 2500 to 2768 degrees Fahrenheit. In general, stainless steel has a higher melting point than copper or aluminum.
Bronze is a metal alloy composed of copper as the base metal and tin as the main alloying element. There are different types of bronze, including:
Phosphor bronze is a bronze version with phosphorus as an additional alloying element, and it typically falls in the 0.01% to 0.5% weight range. Due to its high strength and corrosion resistance, phosphor bronze is suitable for springs, electrical contacts, and fasteners.
Silicon bronze uses silicon as its additional alloying element. In terms of weight, it falls in the 1-3% range. Silicon bronze is very resistant to corrosion and this makes it useful for marine hardware and sculptures.
Manganese Bronze is a type of bronze with manganese as its additional alloy element. The manganese usually weighs between 1-13%, giving it high bronze strength and wear resistance. This makes it perfect for gears, bearings, and bushings.
The mechanical properties of bronze include the following:
- Wear resistance: Bronze is known for its good wear resistance, making it suitable for mechanical components subject to friction and wear. Its wear resistance is due to multiple factors, including its microstructure and composition.
The physical properties of bronze include the following:
- Density: Generally, the density of bronze falls in the range of 6.8 to 9.0 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). However, the density of bronze varies depending on the alloy composition. For instance, phosphor bronze has a density ranging from 8.7 to 8.8 g/cm3. On the other hand, manganese bronze has a density ranging from 7.2 to 8.8 g/cm3.
- Melting point: The melting point of most bronze alloys ranges between 850 to 1,100 degrees Celsius. However, some bronze alloys can have ranges that go beyond this. For instance, Phosphor bronze can have a melting point from 900 to 1,100 degrees Celsius.
Common Applications for Stainless Steel
Stainless steel has been effectively applied in the following ways:
Stainless steel is used in the automotive industry for its strength and corrosion-resistant properties. Some common uses include:
- Exhaust systems: Stainless steel exhaust systems are known for longevity and durability. This prevents rust and prolongs the lifespan of the exhaust system.
- Fasteners and fittings: Stainless steel fasteners and fittings are used for projects requiring high resistance and stress. This includes suspension systems and engine components.
In the aerospace industry, stainless steel is used in the following ways:
- Heat exchangers and cooling systems: Stainless steel heat exchangers and cooling systems are used in aircraft systems such as engine cooling and avionics cooling. This ensures effective transfer here while maintaining performance in difficult environments.
- Aircraft interiors: Stainless steel is used for seat frames, lavatory fixtures, and galley components. It is also aesthetically pleasing and durable.
In construction, stainless steel is used for the following:
- Building services: This includes plumbing, HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), and fire protection systems.
- Reinforcement bars: Stainless steel bars are used in concrete structures to boost durability and corrosion resistance. It is also used when the concrete is exposed to corrosive environments. This includes highways, bridges, and marine structures.
Advantages of Applications of Stainless Steel
The benefits of using stainless steel include the following:
- Corrosion resistance against rust and tarnish
- Longevity and durability in harsh environments
- Modern and attractive appearance for architectural use
Disadvantages of Applications of Stainless Steel
- It is more expensive compared to other materials like carbon and aluminum
- Certain stainless steel alloys can be brittle under certain conditions, such as low temperatures.
Common Applications for Bronze
Bronze can be used in the following industries:
Bronze is used for electrical purposes in the following ways:
- Electrical grounding: Bronze grounding components create a reliable path for electrical currents to pass into the ground. This protects electrical systems from damage caused by electric surges.
- Transformers and inductors: Bronze can be used in laminations, magnetic cores, and other components of transformers and inductors.
In the marine industry, bronze can be used in the following ways:
- Propellers and shafts: Bronze propellers and shafts are corrosion-resistant, making them an excellent choice for marine propulsion systems.
- Anchors and chains: Bronze anchors and chains are wear resistant. This makes them perfect for use in marine environments where exposure to salt water is common.
Advantages of Applications of Bronze
The benefits of using bronze include the following:
- Low friction and wear resistance
- Good machinability
- High strength and durability
Disadvantages of Applications of Bronze
The negatives of using bronze include the following:
- Limited temperature resistance
- Limited availability of specialized alloys
- Potential for environmental concerns
Cost and Availability
The cost and availability of stainless steel and bronze depend on multiple factors, including:
Material Grade and Composition
Stainless steel and bronze have different grades and compositions. If it has higher grades or specialized alloys, the material gets more expensive.
With more complex and specialized manufacturing processes, production costs go up. This includes melting, casting, forging, machining, and finishing.
Market Demand and Competition
The cost of stainless steel and bronze is impacted by market demand and supplier competition. High demand or limited supply can increase prices, while increased competition can lead to lower prices.
Raw Material Costs
The price of raw materials like iron, nickel, copper, zinc, and tin used in producing stainless steel and bronze can affect the overall cost.
Supplier Network and Location
Suppliers with large networks and multiple locations can provide a wider range of options than smaller or localized suppliers. This will affect the availability of stainless steel and bronze for industrial use.
Maintenance and Durability
Maintenance of Stainless Steel
If you want to properly maintain stainless steel, here are the best techniques:
Cleaning stainless steel is simple and can be done with household items. You can use these steps:
- Gather your necessary materials. This includes mild dish soap or stainless steel cleaner, warm water, and a microfiber cloth.
- Wipe the surface of the stainless steel with a soft cloth to remove loose dirt or debris.
- Clean the steel surface by dipping a soft cloth into your soapy mixture. Next, gently scrub the stainless steel surface toward the grain.
- Rinse the steel surface with clean water to wash off any soap residue.
- Dry the stainless steel with a microfiber towel.
Concerning bronze vs stainless steel corrosion resistance, there are multiple ways to add corrosion protection to stainless steel. This includes:
- Coatings: There are various types of coatings you can apply, such as powder coating, electroplating, or galvanizing. These can protect your stainless steel from exposure to corrosive environments.
- Protective film: Applying a protective film made of polypropylene can provide a temporary barrier against corrosion. It is applied to the steel surface and can be removed after installation.
- Corrosion inhibitors: These are chemicals that are applied to stainless steel surfaces to limit corrosion. They can be in the form of sprays, coatings, or paints.
Maintenance of Bronze
To properly maintain bronze, here are some techniques you can use:
Patina on bronze gives it a protective layer and also helps it maintain its aesthetic appeal. These are some methods you can use to make the patina appear on bronze:
- Chemical patina: This involves applying chemical compounds and solutions to the bronze surface to create the patina. These solutions usually contain acids and salts. The application process will include spraying, brushing, or soaking the bronze surface in the patina solution.
- Mechanical patina: This involves physically altering the bronze surface to create the patina effect. It can be done using techniques such as brushing and sanding.
Polishing bronze can restore its natural shine and remove tarnishes. You can use this process to polish your bronze:
- Clean the surface with a bronze cleaner and a soft brush
- Apply the bronze polish by rubbing it on an applicator pad and gently rubbing it on the surface.
- Polish the surface by gently rubbing the surface in a circular motion. Keep polishing the surface until you get the desired shine.
- Rinse the bronze surface with clean water to remove any residual polish
Durability and Lifespan for Steel and Bronze
Stainless steel is known for its durability and corrosion resistance. Stainless steel can last for decades and centuries with proper maintenance and care.
On its part, bronze is seen as a durable and long-lasting material. It can develop a patina over time, extending its lifespan and protecting it from corrosion. Its lifespan can be affected by exposure to moisture, UV radiation, chemicals, and mechanical wear.
Environmental Consideration for Steel and Bronze
The environmental considerations for steel and bronze include the following:
- Resource intensive: Steel requires huge amounts of natural resources like iron ore and coal. Similarly, bronze needs copper, tin, and other alloying elements.
- Energy intensive: Steel production is energy-intensive, with much energy coming from fossil fuels. Bronze is also energy intensive as melting and alloying tin and copper requires high temperature and energy inputs.
- Corrosion potential: Despite its corrosion-resistant properties, stainless steel can still corrode in certain situations. As such, proper care and maintenance are needed to prevent this. On its part, bronze is not as corrosion-resistant as steel, so additional protective measures are necessary.
Potential Environmental Impacts for Steel and Bronze
Potential environmental impacts for steel and bronze include:
- Resource depletion: both stainless steel and bronze require extracting natural resources such as core and tin. This can result in land degradation and water pollution.
- Water use: Stainless steel and bronze need huge amounts of water for cooling and processing. This can put a strain on local water sources.
- Waste generation: Stainless and bronze production can create waste materials such as dust and slag. These require proper management and disposal to prevent environmental contamination.
Stainless steel and bronze are both excellent materials. However, your preferred choice comes down to the nature of the project and the level of corrosion you are dealing with.
To get the best stainless steel services, contact Tuolian Metal, and we can help you get started on your construction project.